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西南传统村落选址布局的生态智慧
朱雯雯1, 曾 卫2, 冯德懿3, 付豫蜀4
1.重庆市规划设计研究院,工程师;2.( 通讯作者):重庆大学建筑城规学院,山 地城镇建设与新技术教育部重点实验室, 教授,zengw@cqu.edu.cn;3.贵阳市规划设计研究院,工程师;4.上海同济城市规划设计研究院有限公司, 工程师
摘要:
生态智慧是生态哲学思想和生态实践 智慧的完美融合。从聚落格局、选址环境、立体 单元、空间形态、宗族信仰等方面探讨西南传统 村落在复杂地质地理环境下选址布局的生态实 践智慧。解读其背后蕴含的生态哲学思想,包括 “道生万物”的整体环境观、“道法自然”的生 态技术观、“以道驭术”的生态自治观。基于传 统生态智慧,探索对新时代韧性城乡人居环境 规划建设的启示。
关键词:  传统村落  选址布局  生态智慧  韧性 城乡规划
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240314
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51378517)
Ecological wisdom for the site selection and layout of traditional villages in southwestChina
ZHU Wenwen,ZENG Wei,FENG Deyi,FU Yushu
Abstract:
T he complex geological and geographical environment, characterized by the complexity and diversity of terrain and hydrology, scarcity and difficulty in utilizing land resources, and the fragility and multiple stresses of the ecological environment, has posed significant survival challenges for the construction of human settlements in the southwest region. Throughout the long history of human settlement development, traditional villages in the southwest have evolved site selection and layout methods that conform to the mountain and water environment, efficiently utilize land resources, and avoid natural disasters. These methods embody profound ecological wisdom and represent a living embodiment and exemplary model of a comprehensive planning knowledge system inherited from the era of agricultural civilization in China. The article examines the ecological practice wisdom in the site selection and layout of traditional villages in the southwest from various perspectives such as settlement patterns, site selection patterns, three-dimensional layouts, spatial forms, and clan beliefs. Firstly, the settlement pattern reflects the ecological balance wisdom of “grouping in clusters to reduce ecological load”. The “large dispersion, small aggregation” layout respects and adapts to the natural mountain and water environment, effectively addressing the scarcity of land resources in the southwest. Secondly, the site selection pattern embodies the ecological sustainability wisdom of “judicious land use and disaster avoidance”. Through detailed surveys and site assessments like “dragon seeking, sand inspection, water observation, point selection, and orientation”, a site selection pattern is established that includes building against mountains, living beside water, surrounded by farmland, and sheltered by forests. Strategic placement in the foothills, mid-mountains, or near the inner side of river curves enables smart housing layout, allocating flat, fertile land near rivers for cultivation, and scientifically avoiding geological and flood disasters. Thirdly, the three-dimensional units demonstrate the ecological circulation wisdom of “resource utilization and energy transformation”. Utilizing mountainous terrain, a vertical arrangement of “mountain forests-villages-terraced fields-rivers” is formed, leveraging the elevation difference and water’s gravitational potential for resource and energy cycling and self-sufficiency. Fourthly, the spatial form shows the ecological adaptability wisdom of “adapting measures to local conditions and leveraging natural advantages”. Relying on topographies such as mountainous hills, strip valleys, and river plains, diverse planar textures, street patterns, and architectural forms are created. The layout of streets and alleys utilizes elevation differences for a water management system for flood control, drainage, water storage, and fire prevention. Lastly, in terms of clan beliefs, it reflects the ecological harmony wisdom of “all things have spirits, and life is equal”. Deity worship as a spiritual pursuit and cultural belief in clan societies, along with ecological rules promoting desire restraint and frugality, controls and educates villagers’ thoughts and actions. The article interprets the ecological philosophy underlying the ecological practices in traditional village site selection and layout in the southwest, encompassing the holistic environmental view of “Tao gives birth to all things”, the ecological technology view of “Tao follows nature”, and the ecological selfgovernance view of “using Tao to guide technology”. The holistic environmental view of “Tao gives birth to all things” is the guiding philosophy for the site selection and layout of traditional villages in the southwest. It posits that nature is the origin of all things, and human activities should restraindesires and reduce extraction from nature to maintain natural ecological carrying capacity and healthy evolution. For instance, the settlement pattern of “large dispersion, small aggregation” balances the contradiction between scarce living resources and a growing population, while protecting the original landscape and natural environment. The ecological technology view of “Tao follows nature” is the technical guideline for these villages. It emphasizes that all things should imitate and follow the laws of nature, allowing nature to work efficiently. The “mountain forest-village-terraced field-river” vertical pattern ingeniously utilizes the law of conservation of matter and energy, ensuring efficient transformation and circulation of resources and energy. The ecological self-governance view of “using Tao to guide technology” is the value principle for the layout. It demands that actions be not only technically correct but also ethically and socially right, promoting harmonious coexistence between humans and nature. Traditional ecological wisdom provides guidance for resilient urban and rural planning in terms of guiding principles, technical systems, value norms, and social management. Firstly, the synergy between nature and human societal systems is conducive to the sustainability of urban and rural living environments. It is important to deeply understand and practice the holistic environmental view of “Tao gives birth to all things”, viewing human settlements and natural ecosystems as interdependent and mutually beneficial dynamic balance systems. Secondly, human settlements guided by nature support a healthy life system. It is vital to use ecological elements such as mountains, water, forests, and fields, which maintain natural processes, as structural supports for urban and rural spaces to preserve the ecological processes of natural systems and their life-support functions. Thirdly, environmental ethics provide value norms for planning and construction activities. The precedence of planning value systems over technical systems should be recognized, avoiding the misconception of prioritizing technology over values. Fourthly, the involvement of social self-governing organizations in planning management ensures the maximization of public interest, promoting the legality and rationality of planning, and contributing to the formation of a fair and efficient planning management mechanism.
Key words:  traditional villages  site selection and layout  ecological wisdom  resilient urban and rural planning