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一咏三叹,由景至境 ——《诗经·国风》中自然景观展现特征及先民审美模式研究
谷光灿1, 王丽瑶2
1.( 通讯作者):重庆大学建筑城规学院,副 教授,guguangcan@cqu.edu.cn;2.重庆大学建筑城规学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
《诗经》是我国诗歌史上举足轻重的存 在,《国风》正是《诗经》的精华。在《国风》诗 中,大量的诗歌涉及到了自然景观,而对于《诗 经》的研究大多集中在文史哲领域,立足于风景 园林学的相关研究较为匮乏,作为描写风景的最 早诗篇尚未被研究颇为遗憾。因此将其作为研 究重点,首先对《国风》中的自然景观要素进行 提取、分类,分析其特点,得出其层次性和分时 性的展现规律,以此为基础总结出先民既存型、 演化型和类比型三种审美模式,即对中国人原 生情感中的自然景观的感知方式和审美模式的 溯源。寻找中国人对自然景观情感的原始表达, 以及遗传意义,以期为现今的风景遗产保护与 景观设计提供参考与启示。
关键词:  《诗经》  国风  人居环境  自然景观  审美模式
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240315
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51978094)
One chant three sighs, from scene to artistic conception: Study on the characteristics of naturallandscape showing and the aesthetic pattern of ancestors in Guo Feng of the Book of Songs
GU Guangcan,WANG Liyao
Abstract:
The Book of Songs is a pivotal existence in the history of Chinese poetry. It contains 305 poems from the early Western Zhou Dynasty to the middle of the Spring and Autumn period, these poems were divided into three parts: Guofeng, Ya and Song. Guofeng is the essence of the Book of Songs, showing the daily life scenes of the ancestors in the Yellow River Basin with distinctive regional characteristics. A large number of poems in Guofeng relate to the natural landscape, which are particularly important materials for the study of the natural landscape in the pre-Qin period. However, a large proportion of academic researches on the Book of Songs were concentrated in the field of literature, history and philosophy, and only a small amount of these researches involved the natural landscape and its aesthetic and ecological views related to landscape architecture. Some scholars have studied the geographical environment and ecological content of the Book of Songs, however they were based on geography rather than landscape architecture. Related studies based on landscape architecture are scarce, and most of them focus on plants and other uncommon topics. It is a pity that the Book of Songs, as the earliest poetry collection describing landscape, has not yet been studied. Therefore, this study took 160 poems of Guofeng as research materials and focused on the analysis of the natural landscape in the poems. First of all, the natural landscape elements in Guofeng were extracted and divided into five categories of terrain, water, celestial phenomena, plants and animals, and poems containing the above five categories of natural landscape elements were screened out to analyze the relationship between the elements, the characteristics of the elements, and the relationship between human and the elements. In the second place, the names of different natural landscape elements in Guofeng and their frequency of occurrence were statistically analyzed. After that, the characteristics of five categories of natural landscape elements are summarized. It is found that the majority of the contents of poems are expressed in the form of repeated parts of elements, and one of them is expressed in the form of repeated chant. The contents to be transformed were the features or relations of the natural landscape elements. After such expression, a natural scene with partial stability and slight changes was depicted. The poem describing the natural landscape through similar and repeated words and sentences between two or more chapters is called “one chant and three sighs”, and these poems is classified into six categories, namely, it represents the emphasis, the time change, the space change, the space-time change, the description of the object change, and the different characteristics of the same thing. In addition, statistics and analysis is made on the number of each kind of poem with one chant and three sighs, thus obtaining the showing law of the hierarchy and time-sharing of the natural landscape in Guofeng, and digging the reasons behind the law. Based on the showing law of natural landscape, this paper summarized three aesthetic patterns of the ancestors: the pre-existing pattern, the evolutionary pattern, the analogical pattern, that is, the way of perceiving and aesthetic pattern of the natural landscape in the original emotion of the Chinese people, and found that the aesthetic patterns of the ancestors were mainly the pre-existing pattern and the evolutionary pattern. This study concluded that the above three aesthetic patterns have been passed down from generation to generation. The aesthetic patterns inherited from ancestors today are the simple perception of human beings and the inheritance of tradition and culture, as well as the original expression of Chinese emotions towardsnatural landscape. After repeated chanting of one chant and three sighs, the three-dimensional visual element “scene” has become a four-dimensional space “artistic conception” where people surrounded by all directions. The interaction between people and landscape changed with the passage of time, and so did the emotion of people. As a result, there is a profound meaning from “scene” to “artistic conception”, showing the living conditions of ancestors in the pre-Qin period, along with their beautiful feeling of the natural landscape in the living space. This study is expected to provide reference and enlightenment for modern landscape design. By studying the aesthetic information of each natural landscape element in the poems of Guofeng, we are able to learn some essential natural landscape appearance and obtain the true meaning of landscape design. Such as the followings, designers are supposed to pay attention to the detailed characteristics of various landscape elements, and landscape designs are expected to observe the users’ feelings from multiple angles, multi-level and time-sharing just like the poems of Guofeng, so as to make the landscape more attractive to the users.
Key words:  The Book of Songs  Guo Feng  human settlements  natural landscape  aesthetic pattern