• Editor in Chief:
    Prof. Wanmin Zhao
  • Executive Editor in Chief:
    Prof. Wei Zeng
  • CN:50-1208/TU
    ISSN: 2095-6304

    Journal of Human Settlements in West China is formerly known as Interior Design founded in 1986, which officially changed its name in 2013. Journal of Human Settlements in West China, as the first comprehensive academic journal in China under the name of human settlements, will pay extensive attention to the major scientific problems faced by urban and rural human settlements from a global perspective based on the western regions and oriented to both domestic and international authors and readers.

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      2024(2),1-7
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240201
      Abstract:
      The mental health status of urban older adults is closely related to the residential environment in which they live. The optimization of the residential environment to support the promotion of older adults’ mental health contributes to the construction of age-friendly and healthy cities. In the previous literature on the association between the residential environment and the mental health of older adults, the influence factors of the residential environment were multidimensional, and the influence also showed heterogeneity in terms of culture and geography. Meanwhile, the association of the residential environment and the mental health of older adults also had a high degree of complexity, such as a non-linear association. The limitations of existing studies in terms of theoretical modeling, selection of indicators and analytical methods make it hard to identify the key factors, internal mechanisms and pathways through which the residential environment affects the mental health of older adults, thus restricting the proposal of planning adjustments and intervention strategies adapted to the mental health of older adults. In terms of theoretical modeling, taking the limitations of existing studies as an entry point, it constructed a conceptual model and research framework of residential environment and mental health of older adults. It attempted to integrate related theoretical systems and multi-path conceptual models, and to extract the mediating variables and pathways that reflect spatial fairness and psychosocial nature, including Capabilities, Self-efficacy and Environmental Perceptions. In terms of indicator selection, an indicator system adapted to the mental health of older adults was proposed from the built and natural environment dimensions. In the built environment dimension, based on the urban image theory and the findings of the previous literature, the built environment factors were divided into node, path and district levels, in order to incorporate the psychological factors of the residential environment as much as possible. In the natural environment dimension, the natural environment was divided into green space, blue space and blue-green integrated space, which involves both quantitative and qualitative dimensions by combining the attention recovery theory and stress relief theory. In terms of analytical methods, a multilevel model was used to distinguish the role of environmental characteristics and individual attributes on mental health. A nonlinear model was used to identify critical thresholds and effective intervals of the residential environment. A structura楬琠楥潱湵?慴湩摯?搠敭獯楤来湬?杷畡楳搠慵湳捥敤?潴景?档敬慡汲瑩桦祹?慴杨楥渠杰?ths of influence, and qualitative comparative analysis was used to determine the optimal combination of strategies, and so on. As a result, the key factors, internal mechanisms and pathways of the residential environment are identified. Combined with quantitative measurement and health performance, the main types of measures and paths to achieve the adjustment and optimization of the mental health-friendly residential environment for older adults would be clarified. In terms of optimization measures, measures were proposed combining results of thetheoretical model and research framework, with current norms in the planning field. Firstly, guidelines for optimizing the residential environment to enhance the mental health of older adults were identified. Secondly, the main types of optimization measures and planning strategies for specific impact pathways were identified. Meanwhile, in the process of planning and regulating the implementation, it is also necessary to determine the different levels of optimization, such as safeguarding and reforming, controlling and adjusting, and promoting optimization, taking into account the degree of difficulty of the actual optimization measures and the health performance. For future research, wearable devices and VR can be utilized to more accurately measure the environmental exposure of older adults. Biosensors, clinical diagnosis and follow-up questioning can be used to accurately measure various indicators of psychological functioning and mental health of older adults. The use of dynamic strategies to study real-time individual behavior and psychological interaction with the residential environment will be an important direction for future research. It’s expected that it will provide a focus and direction for the planning and design of mental health-friendly environments for older adults, promote a new model of residential development under the concept of health, and provide theoretical support and a research paradigm for the practical cogn
      2024(2),8-14
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240202
      Abstract:
      China is currently facing the severe challenge of population aging, and the construction of allage communities and age-friendly cities has become an urgent goal. This paper takes the spatial planning of three aging cities in Japan as an example, analyzing the planning and layout of community service facilities for the elderly and the construction of a regional comprehensive care system. The study shows that the planning of community facilities for the elderly in Japan takes the existing spatial resources as the planning object, with the construction of a friendly community environment as the critical starting point. Public places and residential areas are used as the spatial management units, and the aging transformation of community space is carried out jointly across five aspects: medical treatment, care, prevention, residence, and life support. This approach does not only consider the integrity and comprehensiveness of the planning, but also takes into account the interaction of multi-stakeholder governance. Introducing the concept of pluralistic governance, community governance is a fundamental component of social governance. The purpose of pluralistic governance is to provide higher-quality and more accessible public services, not the marginalization of the government. In the planning of community spaces within elderly care facilities, it should emphasize the cooperation between key stakeholders, adhere to the principle of consultation and discussion, widely solicit the opinions of the public, listen to the demands of the community, and base our efforts on the needs of the elderly. Among them, the government should play a guiding and coordinating role in governance, social organizations should provide services and support, and residents should participate in decision-making and management, forming a “trinity” of government, social organizations, and residents. Through this multi-stakeholder cooperation, it can reduce friction between parties, ensure the effectiveness of service delivery, achieve effective alignment between supply and demand, and leverage the resource advantages of each stakeholder to provide higher-quality products and services for the elderly. Three-dimensional urban planning and design involves a systematic and holistic approach, considering the overall context, and emphasizing the coordination between infrastructure layout, the environment, industry, and residents. The goal is to achieve symbiotic development and create a livable city for all ages. In the planning process, it should not only focus on the development of new areas, but also the transformation of existing cities, highlighting the unique characteristics of each urban environment. In the process of integrating elderly care facilities, it should make full use of existing buildings and vacant sites, optimize the layout of the facilities, provide more specialized spaces and areasfor the elderly to engage in recreational activities and exercises. Additionally, based on the size of the community space, it should employ a rational and decentralized layout to ensure that the services are more accessible and closer to the daily lives of the elderly. Providing personalized and warm services is key to flexibly meeting the diverse needs of the elderly. This approach avoids the drawbacks of large-scale concentration, making it easier for the elderly to access the services they require. It reduces the cost of distance, improves the accessibility of services, enables localized elderly care, and allows the elderly to spend the least amount of time while enjoying the most comprehensive services. Within the constraints of resources and the environment, China’s urbanization efforts must adopt a compact and intensive approach, concentrating urban development within a relatively small area. By connecting transportation and information networks, a compact arrangement of medical, welfare, commercial, and other functions along public transport routes can enhance the utilization of public facilities. A “network” structure, integrating transportation, information, communication, and energy, is essential for building a sustainable public transport system. Moreover, compact and intensive urbanization necessitates the flexible use of land with indeterminate ownership and the repurposing of vacant buildings. This involves the transformation, reconfiguration, and optimization of existing infrastructure to maximize resource efficiency and minimize the environmental impact of urban expansion. Such measures can, to some extent, improve the accessibility and integration of services for the elderly, enhance their quality of life, foster the development of age-friendly cities, and contribute to sustainable development and environmental protection. The insights for the spatial planning of community-embedded elderly service facilities in China include: strengthening policy support and collaborative governance by crafting specific and detailed policies based on regional development, community size, the proportion of the elderly population, and other factors, as well as engaging social forces to establish a multi-tiered governance system. Additionally, there should be an establishment of an evaluation system for community elderly services to strategically allocate spatial resources with the aim of symbiotic development. It is also imperative to create a resource assurance system and an operational and maintenance team to ensure orderly resource management.
      2024(2),15-20
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240203
      Abstract:
      As individuals age, due to the decline of physical functions and the weakening of mobility, the living circle of older people is shrinking, and residential areas have gradually become the main place for older people’s daily lives. However, in existing residential areas, due to the early construction and low design standards, there is little age-friendly environmental planning and design in residential areas. The built environment often cannot meet the living needs of older people, affecting their normal life, and reducing their quality of life. This study focuses on the built environment of residential areas in Dalian and its impact on the quality of life of older people. To conduct this analysis, it utilized grounded theory, including photography mapping and semi-open interviews, combined with a literature review. Additionally, it applied Doyal and Gough’s theory of human needs to understand and evaluate the impact of the built environment on older individuals’ wellbeing. The study discovered that the current issues with the built environment in residential areas mainly stem from the lack of barrier-free design in public spaces, inadequate planning of activity venues and roads for older people, and the insufficient management of public spaces by relevant community departments. These problems have resulted in a decline in the quality of life for older people and are primarily reflected in their inability to meet nutritional, security, hygiene, and social needs. Among these problems, the fear of falling worries about unknown environments, and shrinking areas are the primary reasons for older people’s reduced sense of security. The lack of accessibility and visibility and, the unsuitable physical environment of social activity venues in residential areas, affect the social needs of older people. The lack of convenient channels for purchasing food ingredients and related services hinders the elderly’s nutritional needs. Also, the lack of adequate lighting and ventilation in residences, the lack of bathing facilities, and insufficient accessibility of public bathrooms reduce the hygiene conditions of older people. Therefore, to improve the quality of life of older people, the factors behind the decline in the quality of life of older people should be fully considered when renovating the built environment. And demandoriented overall optimization should be carried out. Among the specific renovation plans, for existing problems in residential areas, direct renovation without any cost count is the most intuitive solution. However, due to constraints such as cost and manpower, this solution is not feasible. Therefore, based on existing resources, making full use of manpower and space within the community to improve the quality of life of older people is a practical problem faced by residential areas currently. For example, improving the convenience of nutrition accessibility for older people by transforming existing idle facilities into community canteens or shared restaurants. Building social spaces that are convenient for older people in community spaces with high visibility and accessibility can provide older people with the possibility to participate in social activities. Providing convenientsanitary facilities in existing or unused spaces in residential areas, increasing the illumination of older people’s residences and public areas, and increasing the indoor temperature can improve the hygiene status of older people and meet their hygiene needs. Moreover, relevant departments can attract social capital through incentives and subsidies to establish community management service systems to provide convenient services for older people in their daily lives. Encourage the establishment of mutual aid networks among older people to enhance community cohesion and sense of community. Bottom-up socialization and mutual assistance are important ways to improve the quality of life and the happiness of older people. It is only through the collaborative efforts of the built environment and social environment that we can effectively enhance the living standards of seniors. This study presents a fresh outlook on optimizing the aging suitability of residential areas.
      2024(2),21-27
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240204
      Abstract:
      In recent years, under the background of macro-policy emphasizing on humancentredness, urban design practice and control have gradually transformed from “growth priority” to “quality enhancement”, and the increasing spatial quality of the public has given rise to the study of urban spatial quality from the humanistic perspective. Urban regeneration and reconstruction should not only see “things” but also “people”, and the perception measurement of human scale has become an important basis for urban regeneration decision-making. The health and safety of the elderly in the built environment has always been a common concern of urban planning, urban management, environmental psychology and other disciplines. Safe and comfortable urban space that meets the behavioral characteristics of the elderly population is the basis for improving urban quality. In this context, researchers and designers need to answer the key question of “how the elderly perceive and use space under the human scale, and how and to what extent the physical space affects the perception and behavior of the elderly”. With a series of new technologies, it has become possible to measure the perceived safety level of the aging population from a human-centred perspective in a highly efficient and large-scale manner, and then to achieve a fine-grained planning and design guidance and control. Therefore, the establishment of a “perception-evaluation-optimization” analysis framework of urban space for the aging population is helpful for the realization of fine-tuned planning and design. In this study, the central city of Shenyang, a heavily aging megacity, is taken as the research object, and deep learning is used to semantically segment the elements of the urban streetscape; a random forest model of the safety perception of the aging population with humanmachine confrontation is established, and the streetscape in the central city of Shenyang is evaluated. In addition, the study also used Getis-Ord General G, augmented regression tree (BRT) modeling, and other methods to explore the relationship between the safety perception of the aging population and the built environment in urban space. The results show that, firstly, the level of safety perception of the elderly in Shenyang city shows significant spatial heterogeneity, the overall trend is high inside and outside, and the urban ring road shows a more obvious spatial progressive relationship; secondly,the study based on the analysis of spatial autocorrelation model to obtain the characteristics of the spatial clustering of safety perception, and analyze the probability of its relationship with the distribution of the nature of the different land use; the relationship of high clustering of the perception of safety (high: perception of safety) area with commercial land, residential land The relationship between the high clustering of security perception (high: security perception) areas and commercial land, residential land, public service facilities land is more obvious; the relationship between the low clustering (high: security perception) areas and industrial land, logistics and warehousing land is more obvious; thirdly, the trend of spatial distribution of the level of security perception in the neighborhoods of different land use types is similar to the trend of the overall level of the city, but there are some differences; residential land use is not obvious in the clustering of the city boundary between the new and old urban areas, and the hot spot clustering area extends northward in addition to the old urban area; the hotspot clustering area of commercial land is distributed in two lines in the north and south, with a high degree of overlap between the main metro lines of the city and the nodes of the commercial circle; public service facilities due to the number of parcels of land its dispersion, the cold hotspot clustering is not significant; fourthly, the study analyses, based on the BRT model, the level of the contribution of the elements of the streetscape with the level of security perception in the model of the human-computer confrontation and the marginal effect buildings (interface), sky (visibility), paving and walls, which shape the basic form and enclosure relationships of urban space. This study takes human-scale urban spatial data as a blueprint, and relies on new technologies and large models to carry out fine-grained measurement and analysis of large-scale perception for the aging population. Through data analysis, urban problems are revealed, and problem-oriented urban analysis is efficiently, rapidly and scientifically realized, which helps the science of decision-making. The limitation of the study is that the volunteers of the humancomputer confrontation model for the aging population in this paper come from a relatively single source, and individual differences such as educational background are not taken into account, so we expect that the accuracy of the urban perception evaluation model will be revised in the future.
      2024(2),28-34
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240205
      Abstract:
      The global aging population is accelerating, with China’s aging population being prominent. China is expected to become the country with the largest aged population (defined as aged 60 years or older) in the world by 2050. At present, China is actively carrying out the “active aging” action, and relevant documents emphasize the importance of responding to this national strategy from the perspective of urban planning. Analyzing street scale is crucial for constructing elderly-friendly cities, yet there is limited research on evaluating spatial elements of streets and the varied demands for such cities across socio-economic groups. Generative Large Language Models (GLLMs), with their unique advantages such as high generalization ability, multitasking learning, and powerful computing resources, can consider spatial contextual elements and quickly generate planning and designing drawings based on public will, which helps to break the dilemma of planning before evaluation. However, there is currently limited research on the application of GLLMs to guide the construction of elderly friendly cities. Therefore, based on the concept of “active aging”, this study collects 118 effective questionnaires on the survey of street elderly-oriented renovation, which uses street view images within Hangzhou City, China as carriers. The survey respondents are residents of Hangzhou City aged 30 years or older. The questionnaire content includes their individual attributes, whether the street is suitable for elderly-oriented renovation, and the corresponding elderly-oriented renovation needs (including 22 element indicators from street form, environmental facility, road and transportation, and green landscape dimensions). Then, this study selects Baidu “Wenxin Yige”, a multi-modal GLLM, as the automation designing platform, and inputs street view images (image mode) that are suitable for elderly-oriented renovation and corresponding street renovation requirements (text mode), until the corresponding elderly-oriented renovation designing diagrams that satisfy the respondents are generated. Finally, the street view images before and after the elderly-oriented renovation are subjected to semantic segmentation to extract the percentage of environmental elements in each street, and further statistical analysis is conducted on the differences in elderly friendly needs among different groups and their overall characteristics. The results indicate that the application of GLLMs in the design of elderly friendly cities is feasible and effective. Firstly, there are significant differences in the attention points of respondents of different genders, ages, education levels, housing properties, and pension (or income) towards urban environmental elements in streets after elderly-oriented renovation. 1)The male groups place more emphasis on the renovation of elements related street form and environmental quality to improve the recognition of street space. While, the female groups place greater emphasis on the elements related transformation of functional and accessibility, such as more commercial service facilities and urban furniture facilities. 2)The preferences of different groups with different levels of education and housing properties towards the proportion of various urban environmental elements are relatively consistent. However, based on the results of the questionnaire survey, it is found that groupswith higher education levels have higher requirements for the quality of green spaces, and groups with different housing properties have different specific designing requirements for various elements. 3)There are significant differences in the demand for elderly friendly street elements among different age groups and pension (or income) groups. Secondly, the current situation of buildings, rest seats, greenery, and signage (lights) within the scope of this study has roughly meet the requirements of elderly friendly cities, but there is still an urgent need to improve the openness of the sky, walls (fences), pedestrian walkways, street lights, traffic flow, and lane planning. Finally, based on the significance of the percentage changes in environmental factors in each city, 118 streets can be divided into four types of elderly-oriented renovation: street form renovation (N=20), green landscape renovation (N=36), environmental facility renovation (N=29), and road and traffic renovation (N=33). Based on the above results, further research can be conducted in the future. In the construction of elderly-friendly cities, it is essential to tailor the detail-oriented renovations to the characteristics of the residents in the area where the street is located. For example, in areas with affordable housing, the street’s architectural facades could be enriched with colors, and park green space facilities such as fitness equipment, walking paths, children’s play areas, and rest seats could be added. For streets in high-density blocks, street-side green spaces can be cleverly integrated to meet the needs of various groups. Furthermore, the advancement of road space redistribution ensures the protection of pedestrian slow traffic spaces, especially in streets within resettlement housing blocks.
      2024(2),35-40
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240206
      Abstract:
      Population aging is a prominent phenomenon in many countries. It occurs as a result of declining fertility rates, increased life expectancy, and advancements in healthcare and living standards. The shift in age distribution presents significant challenges and opportunities for societies worldwide, impacting various aspects of social, economic, and healthcare systems. “Actively addressing population aging” has recently been pursued as China’s national strategy. Consequently, cities, especially those in China, must be motivated to adapt to an aging society, strive to satisfy the multifaceted needs of seniors, adopt a positive attitude and mindset, and undertake constructive actions while implementing pertinent policies to support the creation of age-friendly environments that enable seniors to live independently and actively participate in society. Walking, as a form of physical activity, offers many health benefits, including improved blood circulation, prevention of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline mitigation, lowered risk of depression and dementia, boosted immunity, and enhanced cardiorespiratory function. Despite these benefits, walking has gradually been marginalized due to rapid urbanization and increased car usage, leading to a rise in obesity and cardiovascular diseases among urban dwellers and a decline in overall health. Therefore, it is imperative to reframe the significance of walking in urban life, advocating for increased walking and decreased reliance on cars. Furthermore, walking offers additional benefits for seniors. On one hand, it improves seniors’ physical function, including balance and stability, which are crucial for maintaining independence and preventing falls, a common concern among seniors. This contributes significantly to “healthy aging”, promoting longevity and overall well-being. On the other hand, walking encourages social interaction and community engagement, fostering connections with others and combating feelings of isolation and loneliness, a prevalent issue among seniors. These social interactions not only improve mental health but also contribute to a sense of belonging, ultimately enhancing quality of life and well-being. Thus, walking plays a pivotal role in supporting “active aging”. Considering the multitude of advantages associated with walking, it becomes imperative to create a walking environment tailored to the needs of senior citizens, especially as the global population continues to age. In other words, as the demographic shift towards an aging population accelerates worldwide, ensuring that the walking environment accommodates the needs and preferences of seniors becomes increasingly important. This necessitates proactive measures by urban planners, policymakers, and community stakeholders. Satisfaction with the walking environment (or walking satisfaction), as a kind of transportation satisfaction, warrants attention in research aimed at enhancing the walking environment. At present, more research is needed on seniors’ satisfaction with the walking environment. Moreover, conventional transportation satisfaction modeling approaches, including Pearson/Spearman correlation analysis, Logit model, ordered Logit/Probit model, and path analysis, often make rigidassumptions about the relationship between independent and dependent variables, neglecting potential nonlinearities and threshold effects. Therefore, the application of machine learning models becomes necessary for a more comprehensive analysis. In light of the above issues, this study conducts extensive questionnaire surveys among seniors in Chengdu, China, with a sample size of 1 012 respondents. A random forest model, a powerful ensemble learning algorithm, is developed to assess the relative importance of individual attributes of the walking environment in predicting overall walking satisfaction among seniors. Additionally, importance-performance analysis (IPA), a strategic management tool commonly used in marketing research to evaluate and prioritize various attributes or features of a product, service, or brand, is employed to prioritize the attributes of the walking environment from the seniors’ perspective. The findings of this study are presented below. Random forest modeling results highlight that streetscape aesthetics, access to living amenities, walkway width, and seat availability are the attributes of the highest importance. Conversely, seniors attribute minimal value to intersection spacing and street connectivity. Moreover, IPA results emphasize the need to enhance seat availability, streetscape aesthetics, and access to recreational facilities and commercial centers. Lastly, targeted policy recommendations and strategic insights are proposed. This study serves as a valuable reference for guiding the enhancement of an age-friendly walking environment, a crucial consideration in urban planning and community development amidst the era of population aging. By examining various attributes and factors that contribute to the creation of an age-friendly walking environment, this study provides insights that can inform urban planners, architects, policymakers, and community stakeholders in their efforts to design and improve the walking environment, particularly within the context of population aging.
      2024(2),41-48
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240207
      Abstract:
      As China’s population ages, the number of the elderly and children has been steadily increasing in recent years. Against this backdrop, grandparenting has become a common phenomenon in the country. In winter cities, where climate conditions vary significantly with the seasons, the elderly and children populations face heightened environmental health risks. The changing seasons in these winter cities notably impact the activity patterns of these groups. Residential areas, as the primary venues for outdoor activities for the elderly and children, can effectively meet their needs and adapt to seasonal changes through the optimization of physical spaces and the socio-cultural environment. Therefore, this paper is oriented to improve the health level of the elderly and children groups in winter cities, with the goal of improving their level of allseason activities, extending the duration of activities, and enriching the types of activities. Also, this paper focuses on the intergenerational activity needs of the elderly and children groups in the outdoor activity space of the settlements in winter cities, and investigates the characteristics of the intergenerational interaction behaviors of the elderly and children groups in different seasons, and explores the relationship between them and environmental elements of the outdoor activity space of the settlements by means of field research and data analysis. The findings are used to adjust resource allocation and improve environmental quality, proposing strategies for optimizing these outdoor spaces to guide improvements in winter cities. Firstly, the study begins with a combined approach of field surveys and questionnaires, investigating 452 elderly and children pairs across six sample residential areas in Harbin. The core of this research lies in the “activity characteristics of the elderly and children in residential outdoor spaces”. “Activity characteristics in residential outdoor spaces” under the context is driven by internal factors such as personal characteristics of these groups and external factors like seasonal changes in cold urban climates and the residential environment. The questionnaire covers potential influencing factors, including individual characteristics, residential environment planning features, and social aspects of the residential environment, as well as activity characteristics in residential outdoor spaces across different seasons, such as activity frequency, duration, and types. Secondly, a comprehensive analysis of the questionnaire results reveals the characteristics of the elderly and children’s outdoor activities in residential areas across different seasons, including the demographics of participants, types of activities, range of trip, timing, and spatial distribution. To further explore the characteristics of these activities (frequency, duration, and types) and their relationship with the outdoor space environment across different seasons. The study employs multiple regression analysis to identify influencing factors for each activity characteristic, providing a basis for subsequent residential optimization. The results of the study show that the frequency of outdoor activities of the elderly and children is closely related to the seasonal changes in winter cities, and that the frequency of outdoor activities in the cold season is most significantly affected by the accessibility of the site, while the frequency of outdoor activities in the other seasons issignificantly affected by the characteristics of the society. In terms of activity duration, the duration of outdoor activities of the old and children groups in all seasons is mainly affected by the environmental characteristics of the residential area, and there are differences in the types of influencing factors and the degree of influence in different seasons. In terms of activity types, there are significant differences in age and preferences for venues among the three different interaction types. On the basis of the results of the above research, the causes of the corresponding influencing factors are reasonably analyzed, so as to provide a basis for the subsequent optimization of settlements. Finally, based on these findings, the study proposes strategies for optimizing outdoor activity spaces in cold urban residential areas, focusing on setting optimization goals, mechanisms, and creating an environment. The construction of all-season friendly shared settlements for the elderly and the young is taken as the optimization goal, and a mechanism for the joint construction of soft and hard support systems and a mechanism for the collaboration of multiple actors are used to jointly promote the high-quality development of the settlements. At the same time, strategies are proposed for the creation of physical space and social and humanistic environment in the settlements. Specific strategies for creating spatial environments in settlements include the creation of safe and comfortable travel conditions, activity areas and facilities that take into account seasonal use, enhanced weather protection to extend the duration of outdoor activities throughout the season, and safe and comfortable outdoor spaces that are inclusive of a wide range of activity types for children and elder persons with the expectation that they will be able to effectively meet the needs of older and younger age groups in their use of the space and to cope with seasonal variations. Through the above optimization strategies, humanistic care for vulnerable groups has also been added.
      2024(2),49-57
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240208
      Abstract:
      The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic at the beginning of 2020 has seriously affected people’s daily life and health, which also triggered off a deeper research and thinking concerning our urban living space, especially the built environment of communities. China’s successful experience in combating the pandemic has shown that a series of measures taken with the community as the basic unit of prevention and control are effective, but it has also exposed the deficiencies in resource allocation, spatial planning and governance of urban community space. In addition, for individual residents, the highly spatial community lockdown measures have many problems such as unmet demand for living services, insufficient outdoor and social activities, damage to physical and mental health, and a general decline in satisfaction, which has led to a new demand for pandemic prevention and daily health. Although the World Health Organization announced in May 2023 that COVID-19 no longer constitutes a “public health emergency of international concern”, the years of coexistence with the virus have quietly changed people’s needs and awareness of their living environment and health. Therefore, in the post-COVID-19 era where danger and opportunity coexist and the fight against the epidemic is normalized, how to achieve a healthy, comfortable and resilient living environment through spatial planning has become an important topic of concern in academia. As a subjective feeling of the gap between residents’ expectations and perceptions, residential satisfaction is an effective indicator for evaluating the quality of the living environment and measuring urban planning and construction. However, the traditional residential satisfaction evaluation system is not fully adapted to the current urban communities, and it is difficult to effectively assess and guide the improvement of the environmental quality of urban communities. The reasons for this can be summarized as three: firstly, the spatiality of the evaluation dimensions is insufficient, and the analysis results cannot be directly converted into specific spatial optimization strategies; secondly, the adaptability of the evaluation subject is insufficient, and the change of the evaluation subject’s demand will affect the evaluation of satisfaction; thirdly, the lack of timeliness of the evaluation indexes, and the blind copying of the previous evaluation system may not be consistent with the actual problem, and it is difficult to reflect the environmental renewal and development itself. Aiming at the new requirements of community living environment and the lack of adaptability between the satisfaction evaluation system and the community environment, the goal of this study is to realize the effective updating of satisfaction in the post-COVID-19 era, and intend to outline the new framework of the residential satisfaction evaluation system. The study has sorted out the related literature and spatial planning practices, extracted new influencing factors as “epidemic patches” to revise the residential satisfaction evaluation system. Based on the original evaluation system of residential satisfaction, the problem demand and spatial hierarchy are integrated into the original evaluation system, so as to reconfigure the evaluation system of residential satisfaction in the post-COVID-19 era with “accuracy” and “scale”. The results of the study indicate that the residential satisfaction evaluation system in the post-COVID-19 era can be reconstructed and implemented at four spatial levels, namely community, cluster, unit and interior space. Specifically, communities should improve the configuration of public service facilities and enhance the effectiveness of community autonomy. Composite shared spaces are necessary in residential clusters, promoting neighborhood relationships. The transportation core in the unit building used tobe the overlooked spaces, it should optimize the ventilation system and increase resource supply capacity. The interior space of house emphasizes a complex and flexible layout design, as well as the clever use of specific spaces. Based on the reconfiguration of residential satisfaction evaluation system, the study concluded optimization strategies of spatial dimension support, social factor adjustment, and overall dynamic update. Through the supportive reconstruction of the spatial scales of residential satisfaction, the evaluation dimensions are improved, so as to efficiently raise the satisfaction. Emphasizing the regulation of social factors in residential satisfaction responds to the needs of residents’ social life in the post epidemic era, and helps to form the sense of community and a better governance pattern. The correlation between residents and the living environment promotes the dynamic updating of the residential satisfaction system, which leads to a more accurate environmental improvement program. The research suggests that the application of multi-scale residential satisfaction evaluation indicators and the implementation of community resilience optimization strategies are keys to effectively improving spatial resilience of urban communities in the post-COVID-19 era. The results of this study can serve as a guide for improving the spatial resilience and planning construction of urban communities and “people’s cities”.
      2024(2),58-63
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240209
      Abstract:
      At present, the cross-amalgamation between ecology and habitat science has become an important research orientation in the sustainable development of the built environment. As nationallevel built environment evaluation standards play a leading and guiding role in urban construction activities, how to integrate ecological theories at the corresponding scale into the national-level built environment evaluation system represented by the Green Building Evaluation Standard has become the research content. At present, the research and practice of site ecological impact assessment in China’s national built environment assessment standards are in the stage of exploration and qualitative analysis. There is a lack of systematic expression and provision of ecological theory closely related to site planning and design, and there is no targeted clause setting and quantitative evaluation from the life cycle perspective including decision-making stage, planning stage, design stage, construction stage and maintenance stage. Therefore, this paper studied the BREEAM UK Strategic Ecology Framework and its application in the BREEAM evaluation system, and analyzed from the perspective of the implementation emphasis of ecological theory in the ecological impact assessment of different scales sites and the provision setting of each life cycle stage, in order to provide a useful reference for the ecological part of the site provisions in the national built environment assessment represented by the Green Building Evaluation Standard in China. This paper introduced the general formulation ideas, overall objectives and tasks of BREEAM UK Strategic Ecology Framework, as well as the clauses setting and the implementation focuses in the infrastructure evaluation, community evaluation and building evaluation which under its guidance. The general formulation idea of BREEAM UK Strategic Ecological Framework is to clarify the key ecological characteristics and reasonable ecological objectives of the evaluated sites and ecological related areas, to formulate ecological design strategies related to biodiversity, habitat protection and sustainable issues, and to enhance the overall ecological value of the whole life cycle of the built environment project in combination with periodic ecological management and maintenance. The above clauses setting included infrastructure ecological impact assessment oriented with biodiversity conservation, community ecological impact assessment oriented with participatory local habitat construction and architectural ecological impact assessment oriented with pro-life design. The above implementation focuses included the division of ecological status survey paths at different risk levels, the setting of ecological goals combined with sustainable issues, the formulation of ecological measures following the ecological mitigation level, and the quantitative measurement of the overall ecological value. Through the above research contents, this study aims to play a certain reference role in how to integrate ecological impact assessment with national built environment assessment standards systematically, hierarchically and practically. Through the above analysis, the following suggestions were put forward for the site ecological impact assessment in national-level built environment evaluation system represented by the Green Building Evaluation Standard: 1) Expanding the scope of ecological theory. The evaluation contents should be related to the frontier ecological theory, which could reflect the current best practices andfuture development direction in the field of ecology. 2) Constructing the overall framework of the evaluation contents. Establish an overall framework with unified evaluation logic, implementation path and measurement method, and select quantitative indicators to represent the overall change of ecological value before and after construction to quantify the evaluation results. 3) Setting the evaluation clauses based on the whole life cycle stages. Integrate the evaluation clauses with the key contents of ecological fields such as biodiversity conservation, habitat construction, and pro-life design, taking into account the relevance and applicability. 4) The evaluation process should be dominated by ecologists. Following the advice of qualified ecologists, who coordinate stakeholders such as planners, designers, construction teams, owners and managers for information transfer and collaboration. 5) Promoting the formulation of national ecological policy. Through a series of processes such as theoretical research, inclusion criteria, and promotion in conjunction with evaluation projects, key ecological policies such as ecosystem services, natural capital, and biodiversity compensation should be formulated in order to promote the transformation of ecological achievements into national policies. This paper expected to play a certain reference role for the ecological development of national-level built environment evaluation system represented by the Green Building Evaluation Standard in China to realize the systematic and deep integration between the frontier ecological theory and specific implementation methods. Then, it should promote the ecological construction of China’s built environment and the formulation of relevant ecological policies through the guiding role of built environment assessment to construction practice.
      2024(2),64-71
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240210
      Abstract:
      Since the concept of community resilience was put forward in the 1980s, this term has been a focal point in various disciplines such as sociology, environmental science, and engineering. While these disciplines individually contribute to understanding social unit resilience, environmental features’ capacity to absorb shocks, and building infrastructure resilience. It may result in inconsistent concepts and definitions by combining them. The terms of spatial resilience, territorial resilience and territorial resilience planning emerged successively after 1990, 2010 and 2015. It can be seen that urban and spatial planning with resilience can be served as a method to address complex disaster risks. This paper aims to analyze the evolution of community resilience research and apply accumulated knowledge to urban and spatial planning. By utilizing Citespace and Histcite to quantitatively analyze 2 266 international documents, this study reveals several key findings: firstly, there has been a consistent increase in articles since 2010, with the United States (29.54%), Australia (9.12%), the United Kingdom(9.05%), Canada (4.71%), and China(4.38%) being the top five contributors. Secondly, disciplinary analysis highlights a clear trend of network agglomeration, with eight top disciplines namely “Energy & Fuel” “Sociology” “Public, Environmental and Occupational Health” “Engineering, Civil” “Forestry” “Anthropology” “Engineering, Geological” and “Engineering, Industrial”. It means that interdisciplinary cooperation and multidisciplinary development become research tendency. Thirdly, although scholar network is generally dispersed, some scholar circles cooperate closely relying on scientific research institutions. Particularly, the “California academic circle” exhibits significant agglomeration degree, followed by the “Colorado academic circle”. Fourthly, research hotspots are clustered by ten topics including “indigenous” “conservation” “urban resilience” “social network” “community development” “COVID-19” “earthquake” “substance abuse” “matrix” and “democracy”. To be more specific, Social network is the core feature which is manifested as long hot period and high burst value. “Place” is common concern among research hotspots. Lastly, research frontiers, identified through burst value analysis, encompasses four directions which are compound-risk governance, spatial-temporal evolution, bottom-up and top-down social network and Multi-system evaluation model. All these will be research challenges. Furthermore, a dataset of cited literature on hotspots and frontiers is connected with urban and spatial planning literature through content analysis. Implications suggest that urban and spatial planning, with its interdisciplinary nature, incorporates spatial analysis tools and planning techniques to reflect interactions among different places. Community resilience assessment, grounded in local characteristics, such as exposure, vulnerability data, service radius of rescue facilities, serves as the correlation basis for urban and spatial planning. A community baseline resilience model aids policymaker in prioritizing mitigation measures for high-risk space based on the complex perspective of multi-scale, spatial-temporal characteristics, differential weightingfactors and spatial autocorrelation characteristics. Notably, urban and spatial planning’s key role is in analyzing and mapping the dependence between component performance and social networks in the built environment. Thus, planners should not only pay attention to the improvement of the internal space and infrastructure in the community, but also take consideration of “dependent space” and “ecosystem connectivity” outside the community owing to the diversity of risks. This may strengthen “risk dispersion”, diversify spatial functions and maneuver facility configuration by land area allocation and spatial optimization layout in higher-level urban planning. The discipline of urban and spatial planning has the highest number of published literatures on community resilience in china, which focus on spatial optimization for disaster risk adaptation. Thus territorial space resilience with three frontier research topics is proposed including the normative definition, evaluation methods under Socio-Eco-Technological systems, and bottom-up social network governance by linking with the international research hotspots, frontier issues and the association with spatial planning. It is necessary to integrate the core characteristics of spatial resilience (focusing on ecological system resilience) and community resilience (focusing on economic and social system resilience) to constructs territorial spatial resilience definition. The new concept emphasizes the improvement of environmental carrying capacity, the human innovation of community system and the perceptibility of smart infrastructure in technological system. It is also a clear research direction to recognize the nonlinear and complex relationship among Socio-Eco- Technological systems and develop general evaluation models to integrate environmental, economic, social, technical and other indicators for territorial space resilience. The study envisions the enhancement of territorial space resilience through stakeholder decision-making and advocates for collective responsibility in “urban and spatial planning based on resilience”. Overall, this paper provides valuable insights for optimizing urban and spatial planning under resilience thinking.
      2024(2),72-82
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240211
      Abstract:
      The “urban design in Chinese” translated by the English word from US urban design academic paper, has a different meaning from previous “urban design” in the world. By tracing the North American urban design source since 1956, the paper expounds the essential characteristics of responding change urban design. In view to that, the underlying logic of urban design existence is responding action of city environment changes, so the outcome of urban design should be an open implementation framework. It’s composed of two parts: design creative consulting, and implementation strategy, making up for the insufficiency of the old urban planning management system such as zoning and its ordinance, and playing a unique role in the process of urban construction management. The paper discusses the key issues of urban design guidance and control under the zoning ordinance and by-laws. Firstly, it is the different scales of urban design project. Urban design management should give full play to the characteristics of dynamic guidance and control under the control of the overall city comprehensive planning objectives and the basic structure of management, so as to adapt to the new changes of urban environment and people's living needs. The second is the power of guidance and control. By explaining the basic floor area ratio and the maximum floor area ratio, it is pointed out that the data range of the design floor area ratio determines the guidance and control ability of urban design management, and demonstrates the role of the incentive zoning strategies and technologies during the process of the construction project “soft landing” . The third is process of guidance and control, which discusses guidance and control process of urban design, relying on zoning systems from beginning to end, which should be a closed-loop legal procedure. Fourth, it is the standard of urban design. Thinking urban design standard is to ensure the guiding results of fair, justice and high quality, the paper comprehensively summarizes the data and information about urban design standards, and summarizes that urban design standards generally includes four aspects: blocks and streets, street wall and public space, street furniture and greenings, signs and material. In addition, according to the construction needs, some cities have specially compiled environmental sustainable development standards, barrier-free design standards, complete street and community design standards, street park-let design standards, and the like. Fifth, it is the urban design education. It is pointed out that with the enhancement of city awareness and civic awareness, more and more people are enthusiastic to participate urban design decision-making process, and the community design workshops. So, urban design education should be oriented to all people, especially the citizens living in the city. The education program can be divided into direct professional designer program and indirect designer training program. The urban design curriculum level is also divided into four knowledge modules, forming a four-in-one urban design education system. Finally, it puts forward the road map of urban design with Chinese characteristics. It is believed that China has accumulated a lot of experiences in detailed control planning and independently formulated urban design, which is a valuable resource for the innovation of urban design system. From past 70 years’ experiences of North American urban design practice, we have learned much more lessons in evolution of urban design discipline. By understanding its urban design intention, concept and principle will help us to explore the development of urban design discipline and practice suitable for China conditions and with Chinese characteristics. The paper suggests that, as Chinese cities entering the era of renewal, the urban constructionis facing more and more challenges and opportunities. It should attach importance to basic issues of urban design and take high-quality environmental construction as our goal, learn from previous experience and lessons, so that the discipline and practice of urban design with Chinese characteristics can develop and move towards rationally.
      2024(2),83-90
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240212
      Abstract:
      With the rapid construction of the national “eight vertical and eight horizontal” highspeed railway network, railway passenger stations and their supporting facilities are also being constructed synchronously in cities along the line. As of the end of 2022, China has built 1 841 railway passenger stations, including 1 188 high-speed railway passenger stations and 653 ordinary speed passenger stations. It is expected that by 2035, the number of railway passenger stations under construction will reach 1 277, including 984 high-speed railway passenger stations, achieving the goal of 1-hour commuting within the urban agglomeration, 2-hour arrival within the urban group, and 3-hour smooth travel between neighboring cities. How to rely on the spillover effect generated by the construction of high-speed railway to promote the integrated development of stations and cities has become a major and urgent demand in the national social and economic life. As a way to integrate railway passenger stations with urban space, the station-city urban complex has become an important topic in the field of architectural design. The construction and implementation of the station-city urban complex under the background of different urban development have formed several practical models. In addition, there has been a discussion among scholars on the connotation and extension of the station-city urban complex. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically analyze the concept and context of the station-city urban complex, clarify its construction consensus, current problems, and development direction. Taking the station-city urban complex as the review object, this paper summarizes the relevant research on the station-city urban complex from four aspects: conceptual analysis, construction characteristics, problem review, and main issues. Firstly, it is clear that the actual driving factor for the construction of the station-city urban complex in China comes from the integrated development of stations and cities, rather than the bus-oriented development. Although both gather urban resources, there are significant differences in development goals, service objects, and influence scopes, which are jointly determined by the current stage of urban development and the railway construction strategy in China. The station-city urban complex can be defined as an urban complex formed under the background of the integrated development of stations and cities, which is led by the railway passenger transport hub. It meets the basic needs of passenger flow loading and unloading and transfer of trunk railways, collects various urban transport transfer services, integrates urban elements through a three-dimensional transfer network, and forms an urban architectural integration phenomenon within a range of 800-1 000 meters around the station. Then, it analyzes the characteristics of the construction of the station-city urban complex at home and abroad. The construction of the station-city urban complex in European countries mainly achieves the reasonable construction of urban spatial relations and the creation of places through the renewal and expansion of the original station space; the construction of the station-city urbancomplex in Japan mainly guides the aggregation and vertical distribution of urban functional elements through the three-dimensional development of the railway station space, shapes better passenger attraction capabilities and brand images, and forms a symbol of the urban economic engine and a window for internal and external promotion; the construction of the station-city urban complex in China intends to vigorously expand transportation-derived functions and urban related industries on the basis of ensuring efficient transfer, promote the development and construction around the railway station, and improve the environmental quality around the railway station. At the same time, it summarizes the problem review of the station-city urban complex in China. On the one hand, it is the process problem of guiding development and construction brought by differences in national conditions and road conditions; on the other hand, it is the spatial design problem of the station-city urban complex brought by the complex spatial system. Furthermore, it divides the development stages of the domestic station-city urban complex, including the initial stage of urbanization and station-city coordination, the accelerated stage of urbanization and multinetwork transfer, and the stable stage of urbanization and station-city integration. Based on this, it summarizes the four main topics of current research on the station-city urban complex in China, namely, the evolution of origin and reality, classification standards and type classification, performance evaluation framework combining data and simulation, and design mode of “multiple elements + integrated layout”. The research proposes that relevant research on the station-city urban complex in China should improve the systematic construction of the station-city urban complex at multiple levels, strengthen research on the station-city urban complex in urban development, advance the intervention of the evaluation system of the station-city urban complex into design, focus on interdisciplinary integration to achieve innovative research methods, and further research through multi-system intersections and cross-scale collaboration, which has practical significance for the integrated development of stations and cities in China at present.
      2024(2),91-97
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240213
      Abstract:
      As China’s urbanization enters a new stage, the paradigm of urban development is changing, and the value of historic districts is gradually emerging. The preservation and renewal of historic districts have become a significant type of urban renewal process. This paper focuses on the preservation and renewal modes of the historic districts in New York from the perspective of urban renewal, using the Greenwich Village historic district as a case study. It explores the mode mechanisms adopted by the authority of New York City in response to preservation and renewal projects for historical districts of various scales and types after the promulgation of the “New York City Landmarks Law” in the 1960s. The research takes the preservation and renewal projects of historical districts as the research object, and from the perspective of the interconnection between the cultural heritage and renewal modes of historical districts, it sorts out the development background and spatial evolution process of historical districts, analyzes the historical value, dynamic cultural heritage, and aesthetic features of the diversity of historical districts. In response to the dual objectives of historical cultural inheritance and urban renewal development, the research elaborates in detail on the protection and renovation mechanism of various scales and types of projects in historic districts in New York, from individual buildings to entire neighborhoods. In terms of urban renewal and historic preservation, cultural heritage and urban sustainable development are the core demands of New York’s historic district renewal model. New York has integrated the core content of The Landmarks Law into the city’s charter through the legislative procedure of revising the city charter, making it the top legal basis for urban management. Under the framework of the city charter, New York has established a series of institutional mechanisms, including public policy support and social public participation mechanisms, to ensure the sustainability and fairness of the entire process from application to approval to implementation of renewal projects. To support the wide participation of market forces in the preservation and renewal of historic districts, New York has formulated historic building tax incentives, historic building insurance programs, and other policies targeting different types of renewal projects. At the same time, the New York Landmarks Preservation Foundation provides special funds to assist the New York Landmark Preservation Commission in promoting public awareness of the protection of historic districts through education and publicity. Information disclosure, public engagement, and project hearings are important mechanisms for protecting heritage and ensuring fairness in New York’s historic district preservation. Detailed information on each stage of the project is publicly available on government websites for public review, and the Landmark Preservation Commission, composed of officials, experts, and community residents, participates in the review and supervision of each stage of the protection and renewal project. The research focuses on the preservation and renewal projects in the Greenwich historical district, which was officially designated as a historical district by the New York City LandmarkPreservation Commission, excavates the heritage value of historical districts in terms of historical value, cultural heritage, and aesthetic characteristics, sorts out the scale hierarchy, functional requirements, and zoning limited renewal needs, and from the dimensions of the correlation between heritage value and renewal demand value, sorts out the development background and spatial evolution process of historical districts, and analyzes the layered historical value of historical districts living cultural heritage and diverse aesthetic characteristics. The research organizes and sorts out the renewal projects in Greenwich Village and identifies three typical renewal modes in historical neighborhoods, namely adaptive renewal mode, rehabilitation renewal mode, and holistic renewal mode, with corresponding typical cases selected for each mode: Rubin Hall Project, No. 14-16 Apartment Building Project on Fifth Avenue, and Saint Vincent Campus Redevelopment Project, with a summary of the renewal characteristics and mechanisms of the three modes derived from the development background, heritage value, renewal methods, and renewal strategies of each case. The preservation and renewal of historical districts in New York City focus on the dual objectives of cultural heritage and urban sustainable development, under the framework of The Landmarks Law and Urban Zoning Law and established a long-term mechanism for preservation and renewal by combining urban planning and urban control systems, which can meet the complex requirements of projects in terms of various scales and types from individual buildings to blocks. The legislative framework created by New York for the preservation and renewal of historic districts, including a long-term management mechanism and a variety of preservation and renewal models customized to local conditions, serves as a valuable reference for addressing current preservation and renewal challenges encountered by historic districts in China.
      2024(2),98-104
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240214
      Abstract:
      As a concentrated and contiguous area reflecting the essence of the historical landscape, the conflict between the overall conservation of historical and cultural districts and the renewal of bungalow compounds has become increasingly significant. In recent years, Beijing has issued regulations and guidelines for the conservation and renewal of historic and cultural districts and bungalow compounds, which have achieved certain results. However, how to carry out the complete renovation of bungalow compounds with the least intrusive design approach while meeting the needs and wishes of residents has become a current issue in the renewal of bungalow compounds in old cities. This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the architectural form, thermal environment and building envelope of the Ertiao No.3 courtyards in the Xisibei historical and cultural district of Beijing, using research, literature and computational simulations as an example, to provide a balance between the need for style preservation and residential improvement for the current renovation of bungalow courtyards. As a concentrated and contiguous area reflecting the essence of t he h istorical landscape, t he conflict between t he overall conservation of h istorical a nd cultural districts and the renewal of bungalow compounds has become increasingly significant. In recent years, Beijing has issued regulations and guidelines for the conservation and renewal of historic and cultural districts and bungalow compounds, which have achieved certain results. However, how to carry out the complete renovation of bungalow compounds with the least intrusive design approach while meeting the needs and wishes of residents has become a current issue in the renewal of bungalow compounds in old cities. This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the architectural form, thermal environment and building envelope of the Ertiao No.3 courtyards in the Xisibei historical and cultural district of Beijing, using research, literature and computational simulations as an example, to provide a balance between the need for style preservation and residential improvement for the current renovation of bungalow courtyards. As a concentrated and contiguous area reflecting the essence of the historical landscape, the conflict between the overall conservation of historical and cultural districts and the renewal of bungalow compounds has become increasingly significant. In recent years, Beijing has issued regulations and guidelines for the conservation and renewal of historic and cultural districts and bungalow compounds, which have achieved certain results. However, how to carry out the complete renovation of bungalow compounds with the least intrusive design approach while meeting the needs and wishes of residents has become a current issue in the renewal of bungalow compounds in old cities. This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the architectural form, thermal environment and building envelope of the Ertiao No.3 courtyards in the Xisibei historical and cultural district of Beijing, using research, literature and computational simulations as an example, to provide a balance between the need for style preservation and residential improvement for the current renovation of bungalow courtyards. As a concentrated and contiguous area reflecting the essence of the historical landscape, the conflict between the overall conservation of historical and cultural districts and the renewal of bungalow compounds has become increasingly significant. In recent years, Beijing has issued regulations and guidelines for the conservation and renewal of historic and cultural districts and bungalow compounds, which have achieved certain results. However, how to carry out the complete renovationof bungalow compounds with the least intrusive design approach while meeting the needs and wishes of residents has become a current issue in the renewal of bungalow compounds in old cities. This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the architectural form, thermal environment and building envelope of the Ertiao No.3 courtyards in the Xisibei historical and cultural district of Beijing, using research, literature and computational simulations as an example, to provide a balance between the need for style preservation and residential improvement for the current renovation of bungalow courtyards. As a concentrated and contiguous area reflecting the essence of the historical landscape, the conflict between the overall conservation of historical and cultural districts and the renewal of bungalow compounds has become increasingly significant. In recent years, Beijing has issued regulations and guidelines for the conservation and renewal of historic and cultural districts and bungalow compounds, which have achieved certain results. However, how to carry out the complete renovation of bungalow compounds with the least intrusive design approach while meeting the needs and wishes of residents has become a current issue in the renewal of bungalow compounds in old cities. This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the architectural form, thermal environment and building envelope of the Ertiao No.3 courtyards in the Xisibei historical and cultural district of Beijing, using research, literature and computational simulations as an example, to provide a balance between the need for style preservation and residential improvement for the current renovation of bungalow courtyards.
      2024(2),105-111
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240215
      Abstract:
      As China entering the second half of urbanization, the international commitment of “30 targets + 60 visions” indicates that urban renewal and low-carbon planning are the basic background of China’s urban construction and development, which means that urban construction and development can only be achieved by stock renewal and low-carbon planning. And urban lowcarbon transformational development is the key to stock renewal and achievement of “30 targets + 60 visions”. Since 2016, research on carbon emission has developed rapidly both domestically and internationally, but the research spatial scope mainly focuses on administrative units as the main research space in order to get research data and information conveniently. There is almost no research on the pre-calculation of building carbon emission of stock urban renewal plot at the scale of regulatory detailed plan. Reviewing existing research, most of it has focused on the impact mechanism of carbon emission, the constraint mechanism of carbon emission, and the methods, strategies, planning ideas for low-carbon emission reduction. And most existing studies have used both qualitative and quantitative research methods, it is undeniable that there is no relevant research on the pre-calculation of building carbon emission for urban renewal planning and design schemes at the scale of regulatory units. Response to the lack of research on building carbon emission calculation in urban renewal at the scale of regulatory unit in China, this study focuses on the scale of regulatory unit as the research scope and the pre-calculation of building carbon emission as the main research object. Multiple quantitative research methods, tool platforms, and graphical languages are comprehensively used for research and analysis, Energy Plus is the popular and commonly used energy consumption simulation calculation platform and software. Under the framework of energy consumption simulation, three commonly used building carbon emission pre-calculation methods are compared, finally the carbon emission calculation method of “calculating building energy consumption based on planned land type and intensity” is selected. Selected empirical plot, which is to be renewed and is of the scale of regulatory detailed plan,for empirical calculation and analysis of building carbon emission. The empirical plot lies in Wuhan Binjiang Business District VII, it is of 344 hm2 and now in a pending update state, having a comprehensive urban renewal planning and design scheme. Then carry out pre-calculation of building carbon emission after renewal and result analysis according to the urban renewal planning and design scheme; meanwhile calculate the building current carbon emission before renewal. And comes up with the comparison of building carbon emission before and after renewal, the comparison displays that the reduction effect of building carbon emission after low-carbon urban renewal is very significant and can reach about 88%, mainly due to the reduction of high-energy consuming building types and changes in land use functions and properties. It is fully demonstrating that low-carbon urban renewal and planning design can effectively reduce building carbon emission. On the basis of the empirical calculation and analysis, the planning strategies and technical paths of low-carbon urban renewal are carried out from three aspects. The first one is the fully implant low-carbon planning and design concepts throughout the entire process of urban renewal. The second point is to pay attention to the impact of the perspective of large-scale area on the carbon emission of renewal land unit or parcels. It needs to be clarified that the large-scale perspective refers to the spatial scale category in which the pending update land unit is located in, and the former has an area approximately 10 times size than the pending update land unit, and the two are functionally related. The property of large-scale area has significant impact on carbon emission for renewal unit. The third point is to establish design path guidelines for responding to low-carbon urban renewal planning at all levels of the national spatial planning system, and implementing the optimization path of urban form based on plot ratio, land use compactness, and spatial dimensionality. Finally, based on the discussion of the scientific value and practical significance of the study, several research points worth discussing are conducted thorough discussions, and directions for future research are proposed. Based on the selected calculation method for building energy consumption and carbon emission, the pre-calculation of building carbon emission for urban renewal planning and design scheme of empirical plot at the unit scale of regulatory detailed plan can provide effective guidance and inspiration for the optimization and improvement of urban renewal planning and design schemes, and can also be promoted and applied to low-carbon urban renewal in other spatial categories.
      2024(2),112-118
      DOI:
      Abstract:
      In the second half of China’s urbanization, people-oriented, stock planning, and intensive development have become the main themes of the city nowadays. The community life circle in the old city, which carries the memory of the city, is in urgent need of renewal and optimization. This study takes the Yibin old city cluster as an example. Using methods such as the Interlocking Network Model and the facilities accessibility analysis based on the real road network, combined with the POI data of 10 major types of public service facilities and data on the importance evaluation of the facilities by residents, it explores the measurement of 10-minute community life circle in the study area. Based on the measurement results, the optimization and site selection of corresponding public service facilities are proposed from the perspective of the life circle. The paper first explains the reasons why Yibin old city cluster is chosen as the study area and why the 10-minute community life circle is taken as the measurement scale of the study. According to the previous literature research experience, the grid of 250 m*250 m is selected as the basic unit for dividing the life circle. The data sources for this study mainly include the vector data of buildings and roads captured by Python on the Baidu and AMAP map platform, and the questionnaire data surveyed and collated in the field investigation, which can be used to judge the impact of various facilities on residents. Based on the Interlocking Network Model and the current domestic 10-minute life circle scale control documents, the above data are used to determine the closeness of the relationship between the grids in the study area and to delineate the scope of the community life circle. As a result, Yibin old city cluster is divided into 4 life circles: central life circle, sub-central life circle, transition area life circle, and edge life circle, with the accuracy of the division results verified. According to the current situation of each life circle, suggestions on the optimization and location selection of corresponding public service facilities are put forward, and the living convenience evaluation of each life circle is carried out to represent the construction level of various public service facilities in terms of quantity, type, and accessibility. After that, the method of calculating the centrality index is used to clarify the importance degree of each block in the life circle, and the optimization suggestion is put forward for the location selection of the 10-minute life circle level public service facilities. The results show that: 1) Yibin old city cluster can be divided into 4 10-minute community life circles, with an average land scale smaller than that of the plain, provincial capital, and super large city. 2) The 4 life circles as a whole have a common problem of insufficient quantity and limited coverage of facilities such as parks, squares, social welfare, science, education, and culture facilities. 3) There are significant differences in the convenience of life among different life circles, and the development is uneven. It is advisable to focus on optimizing the facilities that are lacking in transitional areas and peripheral life circles in the future. 4) Based on the coverage of facilities andthe accessibility of residents, each life circle should provide the top three centrality points as recommended setting points for 10-minute level facilities. Besides, the results indicate that the Interlocking Network Model has good performance at the meso and micro scales in exploring land correlations and guiding the measurement of community life circles. The core of the model is to quantify the correlation degree of actors within the network. In terms of life circle measurement, it is shown to quantify the correlation of different groups to the use frequency, preference, accessibility, and other elements of the facilities in different blocks, and then further identify the group of land parcels with relatively close connections. This is in line with the nature of the relationship between life circles, which is mutually independent but nested.
      2024(2),118-125
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240217
      Abstract:
      In order to strengthen the construction of community governance system and respond to the people’s yearning for a better life, the Chengdu Municipal Government has introduced a series of community governance policies since 2012, coordinating the urban and rural communities of the whole city into a unified development planning framework, comprehensively coordinating the development and governance of urban and rural communities, so as to explore the governance path of mega cities. Through investigation and research, three major problems in urban and rural communities in Chengdu have been identified. Human, material, and financial development resources are extremely scarce, community managers have a low level of education, the supporting and service level of community public service facilities is insufficient, and the project funds used for construction are far from sufficient.The top-level design is missing, and some specialized plans are scattered among departments such as planning, civil affairs, and the National Development and Reform Commission, lacking horizontal coordination and unable to provide differentiated guidance for community development. The interaction between the top and bottom is not very sufficient, the government is too responsible for grassroots community affairs, the relationship between the “troika” (neighborhood committees, property management company and owners’ committees are known as the “troika” of the community) of community governance is unclear, the willingness and ability of residents to participate in community affairs are low, and there are not enough respondents to public activities. In order to solve the above three major community problems, Chengdu is exploring governance innovation in three aspects. Firstly, through multi-party collaboration, from the perspective of community resources, integrate talent, space, and funds into the framework of community development planning, and coordinate the utilization of community resources. Talent Team - Selecting key members at the top to establish a community development governance committee, establishing a talent flow mechanism for outstanding members of the two committees to enter the civil service system at the grassroots level, promoting the “trinity” community planner system, and establish a public creative group. Hardware construction - building a three-level “community complex”, with business formats divided into 8 major categories and 116 subcategories, exploring market assisted operation methods. Financial security - exploring three strategies of “open source, cost saving, and improving usage efficiency”. Secondly, through multi-level transmission, explore the transmission mechanism from macro to micro, scientifically classify urban and rural communities, and use principal component+cluster analysis method to divide the entire city’s communities into eight community development groups: “core urban area, central urban area, urban fringe area, new urban area, Linpan area, high-quality agricultural area, comprehensive upgrading area, and nature reserve”. Identify the characteristics of community development groups through 25 indicators that reflect the current status and potential of community development. Develop differentiated action guidelines for grassroots community governance, and construct ten action menus of “jobs-housing, travel, service, leisure, party building,neighborhood, inclusiveness, culture, co-construction, and sustainable development”, transmit the construction requirements and evaluation standards of the city’s “five major communities” to the community governance actions of districts (cities), counties and streets (towns). Finally, in terms of top and bottom integration, introduce resident participation at different stages of community governance policy formulation, program design, and implementation evaluation, explore the institutional innovation of the “trinity” community planner. The mentor team is mainly responsible for the connection between community development direction and macro strategy, and regularly provides professional training for community planners and creative groups. The planner is mainly responsible for solving the problem of “planning into residential areas”, and is responsible for updating the design of community public spaces and implementing projects. Members of the “public creative group” conduct regular visits to collect residents’ needs and inform “planners” to help them choose update projects and develop update strategies. By implementing a “trinity” participation system, we can bridge the gap between top-level design and grassroots governance. The community development issues in megacities go far beyond the content of material space planning. It is necessary to further explore the complex policy, economic, and cultural background of urban and rural society behind spatial renewal, use top-level design to guide the action logic of departmental collaboration and grassroots governance, and explore methods and implementation paths for residents to participate in community planning. This article proposes “Chengdu Experience and Innovation Exploration”, hoping to provide valuable experience for community governance in China’s megacities.
      2024(2),126-132
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240218
      Abstract:
      In recent years, China’s urbanization level has continued to improve. On the one hand, urbanization causes a large number of rural young and middle-aged labor force outflow, causing problems such as idle housing land, lack of facilities for the elderly, inadequate use of educational facilities, and so on. On the other hand, with the rapid development of the social economy, people's demand for quality of life and public services is increasingly enhanced. However, the scale, quantity, and quality of public service facilities in villages and towns are all lower than the urban level. In this context, for shrinking villages and towns in Northeast China, in-depth research on the allocation of public service facilities in villages and towns is needed. This paper chooses the shrinking Zhaoyuan County as an example to introduce the living circle theory, and the living circle was divided from the microscopic perspective of the actual needs of rural residents, and the allocation of public service facilities was coordinated according to the circle level. Previous studies of village and town living circles mainly focused on the allocation of public service facilities, layout and location, and the division of village and town circles. In the study of coping with regional and village shrinkage, there are few practices, and few studies involve the temporal and spatial comparison of the village population. Therefore, on the basis of the introduction of the “living circle” theory, combined with the shrinkage of the village system, population loss, and residents’ demand for public services, the construction of the living circle of public service facilities in shrinking towns and villages is discussed from the perspective of theoretical adaptability, practical feasibility and future adjustment elasticity, which can provide theoretical reference for the sustainable development of urban and rural integration and the equalization of facilities. Drawing on the division method of urban and rural living circles, this study puts forward the technology and method of the division of living circles of shrinking towns and villages in Zhaoyuan County. First, it combines the needs of residents with the shrinking characteristics of towns and villages and classifies the results of the time-interval conversion of residents’ travel intention and the shrinking villages. The contraction types and intensity of 16 towns in Zhaoyuan County were superimposed, and five contraction degrees were divided: expansion type non-contraction, potential type mild contraction, potential type moderate contraction, sustained type mild contraction, and sustained type moderate contraction. After that, the time distance method is used to convert the corresponding time cost into space distance through the villagers’ public service intention. Based on the contraction characteristics of villages and towns in Zhaoyuan County, the circle radius was divided into four dynamic circles of “county circle-extended circle-basic circle- basic circle”. Then, based on the results of the living circle division of villages and towns in Zhaoyuan County, combined with the current situation of population contraction, the population center and the living circle center are superpositioned to select public service centers at all levels, and a four-level public service facility configuration system of county public service center-extended public service center -basic public service center -basic public service center is constructed. According to residents’ needs andrelevant norms and standards, the project contents of the allocation of public service centers within the living circle are determined. The allocation system adjusts the corresponding allocation contents and indicators according to the contraction of villages and towns so as to adapt to the current situation of the contraction of villages and towns, and make the allocation system more precise and reasonable. The research results show that one county public service center should be set up in Zhaoyuan County, 15 extended public service centers should be set up at the township level, 19 basic public service centers, and 46 basic public service centers should be set up in Xinzhan and Gulong Town, respectively, to meet the daily use needs of residents. Considering the different shrinkage status and development potential of each village and town, the allocation standard suitable for the characteristics of each village and town should be proposed differentiated. For example, primary school teaching points in non-shrinking villages correspond to the selection of basic public service centers. Then for the continuously shrinking villages, it is appropriate to lower the standard of facility allocation and intensive construction, and at the same time, health rooms and daycare centers can also be built together, so as to save land and resource utilization while facilitating medical care for the elderly. This study enriches the research content of the living circle at the county scale and provides useful references for the reasonable allocation of public service facilities and the effective improvement of public service levels in shrinking villages and towns.
      2024(2),133-138
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240219
      Abstract:
      With the rapid growth of population in Guiyang, the contradiction between inadequate supply of public service facilities and increasing demand has become prominent. Traffic congestion continues to worsen, and the undulating terrain of the mountainous city makes long-distance walking challenging. Optimizing the allocation of public service facilities and improving urban livability are crucial issues in Guiyang’s urban planning. Based on the identification and related research of community life circle functions, an evaluation index system for the convenience of 5, 10 and 15-minute life circles in Guiyang has been constructed. For the 5-minute life circle, facilities such as kindergartens, daily shopping, catering facilities, and parks/squares are selected, covering 4 major categories and 8 sub-categories. For the 10-minute life circle, facilities including transportation hubs, sports facilities, primary schools, and beverage/ snack vendors are chosen, encompassing 4 major categories and 10 sub-categories. For the 15-minute life circle, facilities like entertainment and leisure, other shopping options, life services, medical facilities, cultural tourism attractions, and shopping malls/clothing stores are considered, spanning 6 major categories and 31 sub-categories. Diversity is mainly measured based on the major categories. Using residents’ homes as the center point, the research team obtained 52 008 POI (Point of Interest) data and 2 587 AOI (Area of Interest) data from six municipal districts in Guiyang through the Gaode Map API. To ensure scientific rigor, the team randomly followed an elderly person or child for 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes without their knowledge, maintaining the same speed and path. Research in a particular road segment ended when at least 3 or more cases were observed, and 80% of the cases had a walking distance variation within 5%. After successfully following 27 cases, outliers were excluded, and the average results were rounded off to determine the farthest walking distances of 300 m, 580 m, and 860 m for the 5-minute, 10-minute, and 15-minute life circles, respectively. This study evaluates the accessibility and diversity of public service facilities. Accessibility of daily facilities is assessed using the cumulative opportunities method, which measures the total number of opportunities reachable from a specific location within a given time or cost. In the samelevel community life circle, the residential area with the highest number of accessible facilities is assigned a full score. Based on this number, 75%, 50%, and 25% are set as cut-off points for excellent, passing, poor, and needing improvement categories, respectively. Diversity in accessible daily life facilities refers to the number of different types of public service facilities (POI major categories) reachable from home within a certain level of the community life circle. In accessibility measurements, the compliance rates for the 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15-minute life circles were 46.04%, 5.76%, and 5.49%, respectively. Overall, the 5-minute life circle performed best among the three levels, benefiting from the commercialization of ground-floor spaces in residential areas. However, due to limitations in early planning and haphazard construction in some residential areas, the accessibility of the 5-minute life circle in the central urban area was lower than in other regions. Additionally, the high land prices and limited available land in the central urban area made it difficult to develop supporting commercial facilities in later stages. In diversity measurements, the compliance rates for the 5, 10, and 15-minute life circles were 29.38%, 69.00%, and 82.22%, respectively. Generally, the more concentrated the residential areas, the better the diversity of public service facilities. Kindergartens and parks/squares emerged as themain limiting factors. Past planning, prioritizing efficiency and economic benefits, had insufficient emphasis on residents’ leisure needs. Furthermore, some specialty commercial centers often overlooked local residents’ demands for other public service facilities. The overall convenience of life circles in Guiyang reached only 5.49%, indicating a significant regional disparity in the distribution of public service facilities. The low convenience of life circles, coupled with the challenging terrain of the mountainous city and limited economic resources, constrained the increase in the density of subway lines. As a result, residents relied heavily on public transportation, exacerbating traffic congestion and affecting the city’s livability. It’s found that: 1) from an accessibility perspective, high-quality residential areas accounted for a low proportion, and the accessibility of the 5-minute life circle was better than that of the 10 and 15-minute life circles; 2) in terms of facility diversity, the compliance rate of the 5-minute life circle was the lowest; 3) only 5.49% of residential areas in Guiyang met the standards for life circle convenience, and the distribution of certain types of daily facilities exhibited regional characteristics. To enhance livability in Guiyang, it is essential to strengthen the construction of convenient life circles.
      2024(2),139-143
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240220
      Abstract:
      Community living area is the basic unit of residents’ life. It is delineated on the basis of walking distance, and the core meaning of community living area is to provide residents with convenient and comfortable living environment within walking distance. Therefore, planning and design of community living area from residents’ daily walking activities is an important way to improve residents’ living quality in the context of people-oriented new urbanization. Based on the theories of agent-based model and spatial design, this paper systematically reviews the research progress of community living area and residents’ walking activity simulation at home and abroad. Generally, research in community living area has begun to shift from object-oriented to peopleoriented, among which, some studies focused on residents’ walking activities and their interaction with the spatial environment of the living area, using methods such as correlation analysis and regression analysis. However, the above research still needs to be further deepened in the following two aspects. Firstly, the excavation of residents’ walking activity patterns needs to be deepened. At present, residents’ walking activities are mainly obtained through GPS, activity logs, which have limited samples and high costs, making it difficult to comprehensively summarize residents’ walking activity patterns. Secondly, analysis of the walking activity mechanism in the living area needs to be deepened. Previous studies mainly focused on a certain type of space in the living area. As a result, the examination of the spatial elements of the living area was not comprehensive enough. In addition, previous studies mostly used linear regression to analyze the impact of the spatial environment on walking activities, which can draw the significance of the impact of spatial environmental elements on residents’ walking activities, but fails to draw the impact range of the spatial environmental elements, which makes it difficult to provide precise guidance for spatial optimization. Therefore, this paper develops a research framework for community living area planning based on residents’ walking activity simulation. Four research steps are included. First is data acquisition, using a combination of survey and data mining to obtain data on residents’ walking activities and the spatial environment of the living area. Second is model construction. The agent-based walking activity simulation model is established using software such as Netlogo, AnyLogic, etc. The walking activity and spatial environment characteristics are translated into the model parameters with mathematical and spatial analysis. Third is simulation analysis, which focuses on walking activity pattern mining and the influence mechanism of communities’ spatial environment on walking activity. Finally, it is the precise optimization strategy and dynamic planning for the spatial design of the living area. On this basis, this paper presents four key research subjects. First is the construction of the agent-based walking activity simulation model. The key to this part is the establishment of simulation rules for residents’ walking activities. In terms of destination selection rules, the discrete choice model can be adopted, in which residents choose their destinations on the basis of evaluating the spatial environment of their living area and on the basis of the principle of maximizing utility. In terms of path selection rules, Space Syntax theory and method can be applied to calculate paths of shortest metric distance, minimum angular distance, and minimum topological distance. Second is residents’ walking activity patterns mining under multi-scenario simulations. Through the adjustment of model variables and parameters, this model can reflect the individual differencesof residents in terms of age, gender, family structure, etc., and the differences of spatial environment in different living areas in terms of building density, functional mixing, street density, etc. Then, with assignment of corresponding residents to corresponding space, multi-scenario simulations such as shopping, commuting, and recreations can be realized. On this basis, by means of cluster analysis, patterns of walking activities can be identified more comprehensively. Third is the influence mechanism of spatial environment on residents’ walking activity. With combination of the simulation and machine learning, the Gradient Boosting Decision Tree method can be used to identify the spatial variables that have a significant impact on walking activities through the contribution of independent variables, and the nonlinear relationship is portrayed by Partial Dependency Plot, so as to find out the threshold and range of spatial environment elements adjustment. Four is the precise and dynamic planning of space and facilities in the living area. According to the threshold range, a more precise optimization strategy can be proposed for the spatial environment such as walking environment, open space and service facilities. In addition, the model can be used to simulate and predict the spatial and temporal distribution of residents’ walking activities under different spatial planning schemes and with the change of residents’ demand, which can provide prediction and advice for spatial design adjustments.
      2024(2),144-150
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240221
      Abstract:
      In the context of healthy cities, construction activities in many cities around the world have strengthened the protection towards public life and health. As an important component of urban infrastructure, urban lighting plays an important role in serving the public’s night outdoor activities and improving the quality of the city’s night scene. Health issues at nighttime were constantly discussed, but the detailed impacts of various newly developed lighting technology on public health is not comprehensive. As one of the important contents of nightscape, media facade has been applied in many cities, and its high brightness, multi-color, dynamic and other characteristics have aroused widespread discussions all over the world. As there are still problems such as insufficient basic research and unclear regulatory control requirements, media facade lighting have caused many issues related to visual comfort, aesthetic quality, etc. Combining the characteristics of displaying to supply the comfort assessment in dynamic scenes could provide scientific support for a more scientific and precise management and control towards media facade. This research were conducted in two steps: laboratory (indoor) and urban (outdoor) environment. The former step simulated the spatial characteristics of media facades in urban environments by building a set of experiments to evaluate the visual comfort in dynamic lighting scenes. The device consists of three parts including observer, observation box and lighting component. The most common scenes in cities were selected as experimental variables through network data, on-site surveys, including six light colors (3000K/4000K/5000K/red/blue/RGB), five dynamic durations (2s / 4s / 6s / 8s / 10s), and combined with laboratory’s conditions, three observation distances (3m / 6m / 9m) were obtained. The subjective questionnaire in the experiment was based on SCL-90, four items including sector 17, 39, 57, and 78 in the “anxiety” dimension and two items of sector one and four in the “somatization” dimension were selected. Combined with research needs, an overall level of comfort evaluation item (“overall comfort”) is added in the questionnaire. In terms of physiological indicators, an eye tracker (aSee Glasses) was selected to collect eye movement data, including heat maps and eye movement trajectory maps. Data received was analyzed by R language to sort out the changing characteristics of visual comfort produced by subjective scales and eye movement data under key variables explain above. Laboratory conclusions were verified through urban scenes, 11 media facades in city were selected and evaluated from three observation distances including near, medium and far through subjective scales. A comparative analysis of results of two scenes was conducted, which showed that the conclusions were consistent including: under the variable of distance, visual comfort and observation distance showed an inverse relationship. Under the variable of brightness, with anacceptable brightness level, the comfort increases as the brightness increases but when the brightness exceeds the acceptable range, higher brightness will cause a sharp decrease in comfort. On the other hand, the highest brightness is more likely to cause discomfort than the average brightness. Under the variable of dynamic duration, the relationship between comfort and dynamic duration is dominated by a direct proportion which is a longer dynamic duration will bring a more comfort feedback. Most subjects prefer dynamic durations of three seconds and above. Under the variable of light color, with an acceptable stimulation intensity, the impact of colored light on individuals varies significantly, while the level of comfort provided by white light is relatively uniform. When stimulation exceeds the acceptable range, colored light will cause stronger discomfort than white light. In the end, suggestions towards media facade design and management were put forward, as well as content to be improved in the future. The study designed a new experimental device that can provide support for subsequent variable related researches in media facade scenes. By comparing the conclusions of laboratory and city, an optimization method for media facade comfort evaluation is proposed, which can provide methodological reference for future related research. Through subjective evaluation and assessment of eye movement data, the applicability of the eye movement method in media facade scenes is demonstrated. The research conclusions can effectively improve the relevant research on key management and control indicators of media facades, which provide support for further studies, construction activities, and management, and promote the improvement of basic research on media facades.
      2024(2),151-157
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240222
      Abstract:
      Urbanization has profoundly transformed natural landscapes into man-made environments, notably converting natural vegetation cover into impervious surfaces. This transition significantly impacts the near-surface energy balance and material exchange, leading to the formation of distinct urban climates. The design and layout of urban areas have a substantial influence on local microclimates, which in turn affects the thermal comfort of residents in those regions. The relationship between urban form and thermal comfort is complex and multifaceted. Urban street canyons, as fundamental components of urban morphology, significantly impact both indoor and outdoor microclimates, human thermal comfort, and energy consumption in buildings. Understanding this relationship is crucial for designing and planning sustainable and livable cities. Previous research has often been limited by the scale of urban data samples, typically focusing on concentrated areas such as neighborhoods and parks, with less attention paid to urban street canyons. This study aims to explore the distribution patterns of thermal comfort within urban street canyons, building on existing models for predicting Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) and leveraging large-scale data acquisition and computational methods. The validation and optimization of the predictive model were conducted in the Xi’an area. When evaluating the effects of urban street canyon thermal environments on the quality of life for city residents, it is essential to accurately assess the microclimatic conditions within these canyons. Of particular importance is the Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT), a critical factor that significantly influences the thermal comfort of urban environments. Traditional methods, such as those employing fisheye lens photographs to calculate the Sky View Factor (SVF), are both laborintensive and impractical for large-scale assessments of MRT’s spatial and temporal distribution within urban street canyons. This paper introduces a novel approach that utilizes panoramic imaging technology to rapidly calculate MRT across extensive urban areas while incorporating the cooling effects of street-level vegetation, offering a substantial improvement over existing models. The methodology outlined in this research leverages panoramic images to derive the SVF, integrating this with the geometric characteristics and vegetation view factors of urban street canyons. This integration enables the computation of MRT at specific points within the canyons using an enhanced radiation transfer model. The model’s accuracy was rigorously validated using fixed-point measurement data, ensuring its reliability for practical application. The proposed methodwas then applied to calculate the MRT within the street canyons of Xi’an, demonstrating the approach’s effectiveness. The findings from this study indicate a high degree of accuracy in the proposed model, with the majority of relative errors falling within 20%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) ranged between 2.85 and 4.66 ℃, showcasing the model’s precision in estimating MRT. Furthermore, the model exhibited excellent agreement with measured data, accurately reflecting MRT trends over time and space, with a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.74 and an Index of Agreement (IA) greater than 0.80. These metrics underscore the model’s capability to reliably predict MRT variations within urban street canyons. A comparative analysis with models that only consider impermeable surfaces further highlighted the superiority of the proposed approach. Incorporating vegetation into the model led to a significant improvement in accuracy, with RMSE decreasing from 5.15 ℃ to 3.87 ℃ and R2 increasing from 0.72 to 0.74. This improvement confirms the model’s enhanced consistency with observed data, illustrating the beneficial impact of including vegetation in urban thermal models. The innovative methodology proposed for calculating MRT using panoramic images marks a significant advancement in the field of urban microclimate assessment. By facilitating rapid and accurate evaluations of thermal conditions in street canyons on a large scale, this approach addresses the limitations of previous models and meets the needs of urban planners and environmental scientists. The inclusion of vegetation effects in the model not only contributes to a more accurate representation of urban thermal environments but also provides valuable insights for urban planning and green space management. This research demonstrates the potential for leveraging technology to enhance our understanding of urban microclimates, offering a new tool for improving thermal comfort and quality of life in urban areas. Moreover, the application of this model to the street canyons of Xi’an and the subsequent generation of an MRT distribution map for July 14, 2021, at 9:00 a.m., exemplifies the practical utility of the proposed method. This case study not only validates the model’s effectiveness but also illustrates its potential to inform urban design and policy decisions aimed at mitigating the urban heat island effect and enhancing urban thermal comfort. In conclusion, the development of a panoramic image-based method for calculating the MRT in urban street canyons represents a significant contribution to the fields of urban climatology and environmental science. By offering a rapid, accurate, and scalable solution that incorporates the cooling effects of vegetation, this research paves the way for more sustainable urban planning practices. The findings underscore the importance of integrating natural elements into urban environments to improve thermal comfort, thereby enhancing the overall well-being of city dwellers.
      2024(2),158-164
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240223
      Abstract:
      The origin of the concept of minimal dwelling can be traced back to 19th-century Europe, where it was originally intended to solve the housing problem in cities, to eliminate slums and to provide housing for the vast working class. Among many countries, Germany pioneered the concept of minimal dwelling in practice. Architects like Ernst May led the construction of residential areas in Frankfurt around 1926, providing minimal living spaces suitable for single-family households. The interiors of these residences featured modernized bathrooms and kitchens, enhancing the efficiency of residents’ lives. Externally, these dwellings departed from the peripheral layout in European cities, adopting a zeilenbau (rows-based layout) to ensure good lighting and ventilation. From this perspective, minimal dwelling emerged as a rational and economic response to people’s basic housing needs, emphasizing efficiency in the spatial layout, and simplifying decoration in design for economic reasons. Such designs improved the efficiency of housing construction and influenced residents’ lifestyles, turning housing into a “living machine”. While the theoretical foundation and early practices of minimal dwelling originated in Western Europe, the concept found extensive application in the Soviet Union, the largest socialist country at the time. In the early 1930s, the Soviet Union engaged in intense discussions regarding socialist urban forms and settlements. During this period, European avant-garde architects, including Ernst May, actively participated in Soviet socialist urban planning and housing design. Although many modernist architectural ideas were halted with Stalin’s call for “building socialist realism” in the 1930s, modernist architecture, especially in housing, experienced a revival in the 1950s under Nikita Khrushchev’s rule. Facing severe housing shortages in the Soviet Union, housing designs during the Khrushchev era largely embraced the principles of minimal dwelling. These so-called Khrushchyovka were designed to compress internal space to the extreme, with the height of the floors and the size of the kitchens and bathrooms all being more tightly controlled. Unlike the Stalinist kvartal pursuit of continuous urban interfaces, completion, and decorative effects, Khrushchyovka adopted free layouts and unadorned facades to further reduce the cost of construction. Due to the better economy and the prefabricated construction methods, this housing type was widely spread in a short period, profoundly impacting mass housing design in socialist countries, including China. Even after countries emerged from the post-World War II housing shortage, discussions and practices related to minimal dwelling persisted. In the context of urbanization and the siphoning effect of big cities, the post-1960s era witnessed two new trends in minimal housing development. One trend moved towards higher densities, exemplified by Hong Kong’s public housing projects. Faced with limited land resources, these projects pushed housing towards higher densities. Simultaneously, they extensively adopted modular design and prefabricated construction methods to expedite construction. At the community level, public housing developments provided comprehensive amenities, including commercial, educational, and public transportation facilities. Another trend explored the interaction between housing and technological innovation, demonstrating the interplay between housing and technological change. Architects like Buckminster Fuller drewinspiration from cars and rockets to conceive the Dymaxion House, while Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa used prefabricated capsule designs for a “growable” Nakagin Capsule Tower. Nowadays, with the development of society and the improvement of people’s living standards, the meaning of minimal dwelling has evolved. While still meeting the basic needs of residents, there is a growing emphasis on well-designed public spaces to enhance the artistic characteristics of residential areas. Improved environmental quality directly affects the quality of life for residents. Carefully designed public spaces can stimulate interactions among residents, promoting community communication. Additionally, as part of the city’s aesthetics, residential areas contribute to the overall landscape quality. In Chinese cities with high-density living environments, recent examples, such as the Bo Yu of Vanke Cloud City project in Shenzhen and Bai Wan Jia Yuan public housing project in Beijing, showcase a new development direction for minimal housing. In conclusion, although the development of minimal dwelling has undergone a lengthy process with continually enriched meanings and increasing diversity in forms, the underlying principles of “rationality, economy, and efficiency” seem to connect different periods of minimal dwelling. Designing and constructing living spaces with rational thinking to achieve maximum economic efficiency has the potential to alter residents’ habits, improve life efficiency, and consequently enhance societal efficiency. This paper follows this thread, starting from the origins of minimal dwelling, focusing on its developmental changes at different stages, aiming to elucidate the concept and development of minimal dwelling, providing relevant references for today’s housing design and residential area planning.

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