• Editor in Chief:
    Prof. Wanmin Zhao
  • Executive Editor in Chief:
    Prof. Wei Zeng
  • CN:50-1208/TU
    ISSN: 2095-6304

    Journal of Human Settlements in West China is formerly known as Interior Design founded in 1986, which officially changed its name in 2013. Journal of Human Settlements in West China, as the first comprehensive academic journal in China under the name of human settlements, will pay extensive attention to the major scientific problems faced by urban and rural human settlements from a global perspective based on the western regions and oriented to both domestic and international authors and readers.

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      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230501
      As China’s urbanization enters a stage of high-quality development, metropolitan areas have gradually become an important carrier of new urbanization. In the urban-rural spatial system of metropolitan areas, rural areas are the key and weak points for regional coordination and urban-rural integration development. Exploring the development path that adapts to rural space is particularly important for achieving high-quality development across the entire region. The space of rural in metropolitan areas has good location and transportation conditions, as well as unique resource advantages. However, the homogenized policy environment has brought about a significant phenomenon of “development homogeneity”. Its spatial pattern and development path often highlight “individual logic” and lack “overall logic”, making it difficult to achieve the demand for efficient allocation of elements and organic integration of development, resulting in the inability to fully transform the resource advantages of rural in metropolitan areas, becoming one of the main issues restricting urban-rural integration. As an organizational model of rural, “community assembly” is not only a spatial level for cluster development, but also a logical allocation of resource elements. It is an important path for metropolitan areas to coordinate the layout of elements, leverage cluster advantages, and integrate urban-rural development. Exploring rural community assembly model has gradually become an important direction for planning research and policy practice. This article analyzes the spatial hierarchy and aggregation mechanism of rural community by drawing on the practical experience of rural community development in metropolitan areas both domestically and internationally, and establishes a dual assembly logic of “regional division” and “space cluster”. The logic of “regional division” emphasizes that the development of rural should be tailored to local conditions, implementing a “localized” and “distinctive” development model based on the regional conditions of rural, and achieving differentiation and assembly of rural functions based on the differences and fusibility of division. The logic of “space cluster” emphasizes the community and co governance of rural resources, with the goal of efficient and effective supply of public goods and services as the goal to implement coordinated allocation of elements, and to achieve spatial correlation and clustering of rural based on spatial proximity and distance accessibility. On this basis, a research technical route for the assembly and development of rural communities based on “characteristic functional type aggregation” and “near domain spatial scope aggregation” is formed. Firstly, based on the logic of regional division, from the three functional correlation dimensions of production, living, and ecological, the entropy weight method is used to construct an indicator system for measuring the functional potential of townships, measure their individual functional potential, and determine their individual functional types. Based on functional correlation, it uses space cluster analysis method to assembly characteristic functional types of rural. Secondly, based on the space cluster logic, it identifies the development centers of rural community, and the hinterland range based on spatial proximity and distance accessibility. The urban-rural space in Beijing has the spatial characteristics of typical metropolitan areas in northern China. The lack of internal sustainable development momentum and the disorder ofexternal structural division are long-term problems that need to be solved urgently. However, the spatial pattern of rural led by “individual logic” is difficult to support the strategic goals of resource sharing, division coordination, and integrated development within the region. Therefore, this article takes the metropolitan area of Beijing as a case to explore the community development model of rural, in order to solve the key issues of regional synergy and urban rural integration development. From the spatial pattern of rural community in the Beijing metropolitan area, it can be seen that the spatial differentiation of different functional types of communities is relatively clear. The location characteristics of single functional communities and composite functional communities are significant, and the potential for functional aggregation directly affects the spatial scale of communities. From this, it can be seen that “community assembly” has implemented effective spatial zoning for wide area rural spaces, forming a community spatial level that promotes distinctive and suitable development, and providing important support for achieving organic integration development in Beijing’s metropolitan area. In order to effectively implement the “community assembly” development strategy and promote the division and coordination of wide area rural space, this article proposes the following implementation strategies: analyzing the aggregation logic of rural community and support community development strategies; conducting the main functional area strategy and determining the development positioning of the community with characteristics and suitable location; implementing the coordinated allocation of elements with a value orientation of “resource sharing and efficient service”, and strengthening planning and policy tools to support the development of rural community.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230502
      Due to its special location, rural areas located in the fringe of metropolitan areas are more obviously influenced by the operation of power and capital compared to ordinary villages, so they gradually become the spatial field where policies, institutions, funds and other factors occur complex effects together. Meanwhile, rural space alienation, social gentrification and other problems occur from time to time, which block the reasonable transformation of rural space. Therefore, it is of great significance to clarify the internal mechanism of rural transformation in metropolitan fringe areas and scientifically understand the law of rural development in metropolitan fringe areas to avoid such problems and guide the reasonable evolution of rural space and promote urban-rural integration. In order to guide the rational transformation of rural space, this paper takes the spatial production theory “tripartite dialectics” as the theoretical support to construct the research framework of rural spatial transformation in metropolitan marginal areas. And then the research takes Baolong Village, which locating in Chang’an District, Xi’an City as the case to empirically analyze the characteristics and mechanism of its spatial transformation. The result shows that: firstly, the spatial production under the intervention of external forces is essentially a process of realizing the redistribution of spatial interests by multiple subjects. While urban consumption demand drives the transformation of rural physical space function form, social relations and cultural composition are also reshaped, and there are trends such as “commercialization” of physical space, “business connection” of social network, and changes of cultural core. Secondly, in the process of multi-dimensional spatial production, due to the differences in spatial value concerns and practical abilities, the behaviors of various subjects are different, which leads to the emergence of problems such as chaotic rural spatial style and social barrier formation. Thirdly, the expansion and multiplication of capital is the fundamental driving force of spatial production. The dual advantages of rural location and factors in metropolitan fringe attract the flow of urban capital, whose pursuit of difference and unbalanced behavior essence promotes the continuous change of spatial functional form and the adjustment of production relations. Besides, power subjects represented by local governments, in consideration of the equity of spatial interests, pursue certain “economic goals” while also paying attention to the realization of social and cultural “non-economic goals”. Therefore, in the spatial production of material, social and cultural dimensions, it shows the function of management and supervision and the guidance and constraint of capital profit-seeking behavior. At last, in the process of promoting space production, all parties pay attention to the influence of social identity, pay attention to the economic interests of rural native residents, social belonging, cultural identity and other non-economic interest demands, promote the formation of new social relations, and provide guarantee for the orderly promotion of space reproduction. After these main ideas, the research also puts forward corresponding optimization suggestions based on the coordination and sustainability of rural spatial production. Detailedly there are two aspects of suggestions including spatial benefit distribution and cultivation of spatial production power, to reduce the negative effects of space production under the direction of market consumption demand. For one thing, in the process of rural transformation under the influence of urban consumption demand, the balance of multiple interests is the key to the coordinated promotion of spatial production. Local governments should play a guiding and coordinating role, set up a fair and reasonable spatial benefit distribution mechanism with clear rights and responsibilities, create a fair business environment, and effectively attract capital, technology and other factors to continue to flow into rural areas. At the same time, when guiding villagers to transfer part of their spatial rights, attention should be paid to the establishment and improvement of the benefit compensation mechanism to provide basic living security for villagers by providing jobs and regular dividends, so as to gather social identity and ensure the sustainability of spatial production. For another, the cultivation of endogenous driving force in villages is an important factor affecting the benign and sustainable spatial production. Local governments should strengthen the spatial development rights of social subjects, mainly villagers, and enhance their awareness and ability to participate in spatial production. On the one hand, to strengthen the construction of rural governance capacity, through the innovation of grassroots governance mode, optimize and improve the village collective grass-roots functions, strengthen the village collective as the “agent” of villagers’ interests, the village order “maintainer” role, to provide organizational support for the expansion of village collective economy; On the other hand, in addition to providing opportunities for the villagers to participate in the industry, more attention should be paid to improving the villagers’ spatial development ability, improving the villagers’ labor force level and ideology by means of knowledge output and employment training, and guiding them to effectively participate in the spatial production and become the new driving force of spatial production. In short, the study refers that: in the process of rural transformation, we should pay attention to the influence of capital multiplication behavior on rural spatial functional structure, social relationship network, cultural composition and other aspects, and pay attention to the role of power subjects in element allocation, supervision and management, so as to create a just and equitable spatial production pattern.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230503
      Since the reform and opening up of China, rural areas in economically developed areas represented by the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta have undergone unprecedented changes in spatial form. The rural industrialization in the form of township enterprises has not only promoted the rapid development of cities and towns, but also promoted rapid changes in rural space, especially making these areas a semi-urbanization state with both urban and rural characteristics. The characteristics of boundary instability and dynamic variability have caused a series of challenges between human and land relations, which have attracted widespread attention in the academic community. At present, under the national strategic guidance of new urbanization construction, suburban villages in economically developed areas of China are entering a new stage of development, manifested in the evloving of industries from agriculture to non-agriculture, the change of settlement forms from rural to urban, and the transformation of spatial layout from dispersion to agglomeration. In this process, the functional changes and spatial evolution of rural settlements are two important dimensions that characterize the transformation of rural settlements. Based on the above research background, this article takes Guali Town, a representative town in economically developed areas of China Hangzhou, as an example. It selects typical basic units of rural settlements and explores the spatial evolution of Guali rural settlements and their dynamic relationship with functional transformation since the reform and opening up. During the research process, an extensive survey was conducted on 64 villages in Guali Town, and 13 villages with similar natural conditions were selected. Starting from the qualitative analysis of the differential morphology of their 500 m scale samples, the dynamic coupling relationship between the functional transformation and morphological evolution of Guali rural areas was explored. Finally, the implementation path of multi-functional transformation in suburban rural settlements in economically developed areas was explored through the multi-functional transformation process of three typical villages from Guali. The research concludes that: 1) rural functional transformation is a response to changes in economic and social development needs, and is also a process of continuously regenarating and differentiating rural functions. Driven by the forces of marketization, industrialization, urbanization, and other factors, rural areas have generally gone through four stages of transformation and development: functional initiation, functional differentiation, functional conflict, and functional synergy. Some rural areas also have transitions’ leap forward in functional transformation. 2) The evolution of rural settlement morphology and functional transformation are two closely related and interactive processes. Villages as an integration of space and function, the implantation, adjustment, and enhancement of functions of settlements have promoted rural transformation; the transformation of rural functions will also impact the evolution of settlement forms. The rural settlement form of Guali is continuously integrated and upgraded under the basic prototype framework, and the external spatial pattern of the settlement, such as organizational form, spatial layout, and landscape characteristics, has undergone phased changes. At present, its form has shifted from spontaneous disorder to agglomeration and differentiation, and from a single functional stage to a multi-functional collaborative development. 3) The planning of rural settlements should fully adapt to the development trend and phased characteristics of rural functional transformation, laying a solid foundation for achieving high-level collaborative development in rural areas. This study has positive theoretical value and practical guidance for analysing the evolution process of rural settlements in developed areas and exploring their future planning and development strategies.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230504
      At present, there are frequent exchanges between urban and rural areas, and villages and towns bear the overflow needs of many urban function construction, which leads to more acute contradictions in the function, resources and environment of rural space. Demolition and reconstruction was the mainstream of rural construction in the past few years. However, it has been opposed. In the background of the context of integrated development of “three-life space” in territorial spatial planning, the optimization and coordinated development of rural ecological environment and living environment have become the main issues to be explored in the new era. Building a multi-scale ecological network is the first step to solve the above problems. Based on the three scales of “region-village-district” and the source-corridor method, the ecological elements and networks at each scale are nested, the nesting characteristics are clearly defined, the direction of rural landscape ecological planning is proposed, and an effective multi-scale collaborative optimization path is concluded. As for the scale of green heart of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban and Tiaoma, the paper identifies the spatial distribution of site three species based on ArcGIS platform, screens important ecological source areas in combination with MSPA and InVEST models, then extracts ecological corridors and ecological nodes based on circuit theory, and conducts nested analysis of ecological structures under the scale of “green heart-Tiaoma”. It was determined that there were four common sources of the two scales, with a total overlapping area of 26.48 km2 , accounting for 33.26% of the source area of the green heart and 74.36% of the source area of the Tiaoma area. There are six overlapping corridors between the two scales, with a combined length of 8.67 km, accounting for 19.3% of the corridor length in green heart area and 22.6% of the corridor in Tiaoma area. And the common ecological sources basically overlaps with the ecological sources of Tiaoma area, and the total corridor accounts for 46.84% of the total corridor length of the Tiaoma area within the green heart scale. Common corridors and ecological sources are the focus to realize the connection of different scales. A high proportion of common corridors indicates a high degree of connection between the two scales, which can effectively promote the flow of ecosystems and promote the stability of ecological networks. There are 14 unrecognized corridors in the Tiaoma area under the green heart scale. They and the potential corridors within the green heart scale are areas with great development potential, and their sorting and connection play an important role in the expansion of ecological sources. There were two overlapping pinch points under the two scales, accounting for 11.76% and 10.53% of the pinch points in the green heart and Tiaoma areas respectively. There were six overlapping obstacle points, accounting for 26.09% and 31.58% of the total obstacle points in green heart and Tiaoma area. The overlap degree of ecological nodes across scales is not high, indicating that in future ecological optimization, attention should be paid to the transfer of ecological processes across scales to promote the flow of matter and energy. Moreover, the protection of ecological pinch points and the restoration of obstacle points play an important role in the construction of the whole ecological network on the green heart and even on a larger scale. For the protection and restoration of these two types of key nodes, the focus of ecological construction is clearly defined to achieve the goal of efficient and sustainable ecological services. For smaller typical areas, UAV mapping and field investigation methods commonly used in planning and design were used to obtain the details of habitat type and distribution, vegetation type and structure, and water resources distribution, etc. In combination with large-scale ecological structure, small scale three-dimension data, and vegetation status of field investigation, four feasible points of ecological stepping stones were preset, and corridors were identified again. The result shows that seven corridors have been added. It shows that small-scale ecological stepping stones can effectively increase the number of ecological corridors and ecological pinch points, and promote the stable development of ecological network. This study proposes the following ecological planning paths for rural landscapes: firstly, macro ecological network as a base to guarantee the stability of ecological structure; secondly, ecological network nestingas a basis toprotect overlapping or optimise missing areas; thirdly, micro-scale upward thrusting counterfactuals to improve regional ecological network; fourthly, multi-scalar ecological analysis linkage to stabilise the structure of rural landscapes. This study not only provides a direction for rural landscape planning in the green heart of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban but also summarises a landscape planning approach based on multi-scale analysis and nesting can provide references for the development of rural landscape.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230505
      : In China, land is the spatial carrier of farmers’ production and life, and land reform constitutes an important breakthrough and core area of China’s rural revitalization strategy. The distribution of land development benefits is related to the basic rights and interests of farmers, and has always been valued by the Chinese government. In 2023, the No. 1 central document of the Central Committee of the Chinese Government also proposed to “explore and establish an effective adjustment mechanism for land appreciation income that takes into account the interests of the state, rural collective economic organizations and farmers”, endowing farmers with more adequate property rights, and providing policy guidance for promoting rural revitalization and common prosperity. With the implementation of rural revitalization, rural land development has been undergoing market-oriented and diversified changes in recent years. In the process of rural land system reform and urban capital going to the countryside, the incompatibility between government led rural land development and the national strategy of social and economic development and rural revitalization in the new era is becoming increasingly apparent. The market, village collective organizations, and villagers become important participants and organizers. In this context, this article focuses on the three types of interest units involved in rural land development: public interest, collective interest, and personal interest. Using “interest comparison” as the research entry point and based on three typical cases of rural land development in Sichuan, China, this study aims to explore the interest units and their behavioral characteristics on agricultural land. And from both theoretical and practical perspectives, explore the working mechanism and difficulties or shortcomings of rural land development driven by different entities such as government, market, and village collective. Finally, a development review will be conducted from the perspective of interest comparison, and relevant suggestions will be proposed. Through case comparison, it was found that there is a significant imbalance in the distribution of benefits between the government and market leaders; village collective leadership can better balance the interests of the public, collective, and individual. From the perspective of public interest, government led public interest protection is the best; secondly, village collective leadership; the second is market led. In the process of capital going to the countryside, influence peddling, responsibility dislocation and decision-making failure often occur. From the perspective of collective interests, both market and village collective leadership can achieve the maximization of collective interests, with the difference being that the former is highly bound to market enterprises, while the latter is more closely connected to villagers. From the perspective of personal interests, all three paths provide basic production and living security for villagers, and land development participants can also obtain land appreciation benefits. However, only under the leadership of the village collective has sufficient institutional design and arrangements been made for the allocation of rights and responsibilities, democratic participation, village decision-making and governance, meeting the deep-seated interests and needs of villagers. In the end, it is believed that 1) after the implementation of China’s rural revitalization strategy, the number of rural land interest units has increased and the relationships are complex. Different villages form different benefit distribution patterns based on the differences of development subjects, policy environment and behavior motivation, which ultimately affects the effectiveness of rural construction. Therefore, in rural revitalization, attention should be paid to the full participation of all stakeholders in the land sector. The government, market, village collective, and villagers should play their roles in appropriate links and specific fields, avoid the strong dominance of a single interest, pay attention to safeguarding multiple interests, and rely on fair and efficient development system design to obtain support from stakeholders. 2) The advantages of location resources and management systems are essential elements for achieving rural revitalization. Material conditions such as transportation location and industrial development, as well as non material conditions such as the management ability of village committees and land preparation, have become important conditions for achieving results in rural construction. It is necessary to focus on selecting villages with good location conditions and industrial foundations for development, in order to avoid large scale and dynamic “land urbanization”. 3) In the specific organization, implementation, and management of rural land development, policy measures such as restrictions on development entities, platform construction, interest linkage, and establishment of negotiation mechanisms should be taken. Coordinate the relationship between public interests, collective interests, and personal interests to achieve sustainable rural land development. However, in the specific development practices of villages in various regions of China, which may involve complex overlapping and gaming of stakeholders, more in-depth and detailed research is needed.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230506
      With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization in China, the rural human settlement space is undergoing drastic changes. These changes are mainly reflected in the following aspects, the rural hollowing caused by population outflow, the idleness of rural farmers’ residential housing and the inefficient use of rural construction land. With the continuous advancement of urbanization, the number of rural residents will continue to decrease in the future, the same is true of the demand for human settlement space. Therefore, rural contraction and spatial reconstruction are inevitable trends. However, in the process of the continuous decrease of rural resident population, in many villages, the phenomenon of empty-disusing houses and the growth of residential space coexists. On the one hand, the rural resident population has been greatly reduced, on the other hand, the rural human settlement space continues to grow. This “unbalanced man-land relationship” has seriously restricted the rational utilization of rural land resources and the orderly development of rural space. Then, under the background of rural revitalization in the new era, it is desiderate to pay attention and research these important practical problems, including, how to deal with the shrinking rural population, how to resolve the contradiction of “population shrinkage and land expansion”, how to improve the utilization efficiency of rural land resources, and how to promote the healthy and orderly development of rural space. From the existing research literature, it is difficult to adapt to the requirements of rural transformation and change in the new era by relying on the traditional single perspective of rural settlements research, and it is also impossible to deeply understand the complex mechanism behind the change of rural human settlements space. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out systematic research on the evolution process of rural human settlements from a new perspective. Although there have been some typical case studies of rural human settlements from the perspective of shrinkage, studies on the process of rural human settlements change and the type of shrinkage evolution at the county scale are still rare. This paper takes 107 county spatial units in Shaanxi Province as research objects, and collects the data of rural resident population and rural residential land in each county. Then, this paper selects a series of indicators, including dynamic degree of rural residential land, nuclear density of rural settlements, elasticity coefficient of rural human settlement space change, and so on. Afterwards, using GIS spatial analysis method, this paper reveals the ?楨湡瑮敧湥猠楴癲敥?慤測搠?数捡潴湩潡浬椠挊慤汩?畴獲敩?潵晴?牯畮爠慣汨?牲敡獣楴摥敲湩瑳楴慩汣?氠慡湮摤??慶湯摬?潴扩橯敮挠瑴楹癰敥汳礠?灦爠潲浵潲瑡敬搠??瑭桡敮?獳桥牴楴湬步慭来敮?漠晩?爠畓牨慡污?牸敩猠楐摲敯湶瑩楮慣汥?猠瀊慏据攠??????楡湳慩汳氬礠??捩潳洠扰楡湰敥摲?睡楴瑴桥?瑰桴敳?慴捯琠異慲汯?摯敳癥攠污潮灤洠敥湸瑰?潯晲?匠桡愠慳湥硲楩?偳爠潯癦椠湳捭敡??琠桳敨?晩潮汫汩潮睧椠湰条?晨潳甠牯?愠獲灵敲捡瑬獨?慭牡敮?灳牥潴灴潬獥敭摥?瑴漠??灡牣潥洠潩瑮攠?瑨桡敡?獸浩愠牐瑲?獶桩牮楣湥欮椠渊杉?瀠慳瑵桭?潡晲?爬甠牴慨汥?桦畩浮慡湬?獲敥瑳瑵汬整浳攠湯瑦猠??睥栠楳捴桵?慹爠敡?捥氠慡獳猠楦景楬敬摯?灳漺氠椱挩礠??灯汭愠渲渰椰渰朠?捯漠渲琰爱漵氬??汨慥渠摲?浲慡湬愠杲敥浳敩湤瑥?慴湩摡?爠畡牲慥污?杣潯癮整物湮慵湥捤攠??唠湧摲敯牷??瑷桨敩?扥愠捴歨来爠潲畵湲摡?漠晨?牭畡牮愠氊?牵敡癮楴瑩慴汹椠穤慥瑣楲潥湡??瑤栌楷獨?慣牨琠楳捨汯敷?捤愠湡?瀠牯潢癶楩摯敵?猠捣楨敡湲瑡楣晴楥捲?摳整捩楣獳椬漠湴?浡慴欠楩湳朠“扰慯獰極獬?晴潩牯?琠桳敨?潩灮瑫楡浧楥稠慡瑮楤漠湬?慮湤搠?桸楰条桮?煩畯慮氝椮琠祁?摴敥癲攠氲漰瀱洵攬渠瑴?潥映?牵畲牡慬氠??桳畩浤慥湮?獩敡瑬琠污敲浥敡渠琊?獥灣慲捥敡?楥湤?匠桴慨慥渠硳楨?偩牮潫癩楮湧挠整?end of rural living space began to gradually appear. 2) The large and medium-sized cities in Guanzhong Plain mainly include Xi’an, Baoji, Weinan, and Xianyang. The rural residential land in the province is concentrated in the surrounding areas of the main urban areas of these cities. The distribution of rural residential in Northern Shaanxi is relatively scattered, mainly concentrated in Beiluo River, Wuding River and other basins, which showing a zonal distribution. In southern Shaanxi, the distribution of these rural settlements is mainly concentrated in the Hanzhong Basin and the Danjiang River Valley. 3) From 2010 to 2018, the types of rural human settlement in counties of Shaanxi Province have undergone great changes. The evolution types have mainly changed from dilution type to atrophy and contraction type. Among them, the dilution type is characterized by “population shrinkage and land expansion”, while the atrophy type and contraction type are all characterized by “population shrinkage and land shrinkage” situation. In terms of quantity, the total number of atrophy type and contraction type counties is 67, accounting for 62.62% of all counties. Then, the main driving factor that makes the rural human settlement space in Shaanxi Province shift from growth to contraction is the town and village comprehensive reform, with the main content is village relocation and combination. To a certain extent, this reform has realized the
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230507
      The village environment is the spatial carrier for the construction of rural human settlements and the material basis for realizing rural revitalization. With the continuous advancement of the improvement of rural human settlements, the construction of the village environment needs to sum up experience, formulate more targeted plans, and establish a dynamic management and protection mechanism. From the perspective of village environmental construction evaluation, this paper sorts out the current research progress of rural human settlement environment construction and farmer satisfaction survey, and studies are carried out from the aspects of index system, evaluation object, and technical method. The study found that there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic rural human settlement environment evaluation research for rural communities at the micro scale, especially in the underdeveloped areas of the western region, and most of the rural human settlement environment improvement strategies from theory to application of the practical path is not clear, the method is modeled, it is difficult to effectively guide the construction of the village environment. On this basis, in view of the environmental construction of Bailuyuan Tang Village Area, the technical route for the satisfaction evaluation of farmers in the environmental construction of Tang Village Area with IPA analysis method as the core is determined. First of all, this paper takes the Bailuyuan Tang Village Area as the research object, introduces the “importance-performance analysis” method commonly used in tourism research, and explores the relationship between the current situation and expectations of village residents in the construction of the village environment in which they live from the perspective of farmer satisfaction, so as to establish a village environmental construction evaluation index system, which consists of six systems of living conditions, ecological environment, infrastructure, public service facilities, style and culture, planning and management, including toilet conditions, kitchen conditions, housing conditions, drinking water conditions, natural environment, There are 23 specific indicators of health status, sewage treatment conditions, garbage collection conditions, traffic conditions, street lamp facilities, drainage facilities, irrigation facilities, cultural and sports activity conditions, medical and health conditions, orphans, widows, old and young institutions, primary and secondary school conditions, overall style, neighborhood relations, social atmosphere, cultural identity, planning implementation, villagers’ participation, organization and management. Secondly, through field research, household interviews and questionnaires, the satisfaction data of villagers in village environmental construction was collected, the basic situation of environmental construction in The Tang Village area was grasped, and the weight of the index of the evaluation index system was determined by using the entropy right method based on the survey data. Third, according to the survey data, the index importance and satisfaction analysis of the evaluation index system was carried out, and the overall satisfaction of the village environmental construction in the Tang Village area was found to be 2.79, indicating that the villagers’ satisfaction with the village environmental construction was average; the importance of the six system-level indicators was between 2.02-3.96, the villagers’ expectations for living conditions and infrastructure were much higher than other systems, and the importance of the six system-level indicators was between 2.04-3.31, there is a certain positive correlation between the villagers’ perception of the importance and satisfaction of each system, and the villagers are relatively satisfied with the system with high expectations, while the villagers are dissatisfied with the construction of the two systems of planning management and public service facilities. Finally, based on the survey data and the analysis of importance and satisfaction, the IPA analysis method was used to conduct in-depth exploration of the index layer, and according to the analysis results, the problems of different village environmental construction indicators were explored, and targeted planning improvement strategies were proposed. The satisfaction evaluation of village environmental construction is conducive to providing a set of bottom-up feedback mechanisms for top-down village environmental construction actions, guiding the accurate landing of policies, fund the projects, comprehensively improving the construction efficiency of the village environment, and providing richer technical support and theoretical exploration for rural human settlements research.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230508
      Rural revitalization has become a national strategy, and the construction of rural living environment is the basic work and important content of rural revitalization, as well as a key area for achieving modern spatial governance. Based on the vast natural base of mountainous areas in China, how to integrate targeted mountainous rural spatial governance modes from the perspective of mountainous living environment science into the national task construction is a theoretical and practical issue of great significance to the times. Through analysis and summarization of the research literature on mountainous rural living environment in the past 20 years, this article summarizes the main fields, characteristics, and trends of relevant research. In general, in recent years, relevant research has greatly enriched the theory, model, method, and case of living environment, with the following basic characteristics and trends: (1) domestic and foreign research focuses on different and diverse scales; (2) domestic research on mountainous rural living environment emphasizes development, while foreign research emphasizes sustainability; (3) research on mountainous rural living environment and spatial governance is parallel. Overall, there is still a gap between the research results and the “systematic integration” advocated by living environment science, and it cannot fully meet the realistic national needs, manifested in the following aspects: (1) the logical connection between urban-rural spatial planning and living environment science is not close, and the theoretical basis of spatial planning is lacking; (2) the practical experience of mountainous rural planning and living environment science research lacks practical links, and the academic results of relevant practice and living environment research have not formed a joint force; (3) the practical mode and regulation of mountainous rural planning still lack the perspective of spatial governance, mostly following the traditional “blueprint” mode, and lack the perspective of mechanism, system, and rules of spatial governance; (4) there is a lack of regularity in revealing the particularity of mountainous living environment spatial governance. Driven by the national strategies of ecological civilization and rural revitalization, as well as the reform of the country’s territorial spatial planning system, the theoretical and practical innovation of urban and rural planning discipline urgently needs the support of basic theories and technical methods. Through reviewing research literature over the past 20 years, it is found that there is still a gap in integrating the “five systems” of human settlement environment science, and academic discussions on spatial governance models are parallel to research on human settlement environment. The development of theoretical and practical urban and rural spatial planning lacks theoretical support and practical exploration of institutional and mechanistic perspectives under the “spatial governance” framework. Based on the national task of rural revitalization and the internal requirements of mountainous human settlement environment science, this article explores the spatial governance model of human settlement environment zoning based on villages, and designs the basic content and optimization framework of mountainous village spatial governance, in order to provide decision-making ideas for the revitalization of rural areas and the construction of human settlement environment in western mountainous areas. Starting from the basic theory of human settlement environment science, this article extends the zoning governance model of mountainous rural human settlement environment, which not only connects with the solid theoretical foundation of human settlement environment science, but also provides targeted solutions for the modernization of territorial spatial governance, and has important theoretical and practical guidance value for enhancing the adaptability and theoretical solidity of urban and rural planning discipline. Due to the different research perspectives, there are differences in the cognitive scope of rural space. This study mainly focuses on the spatial organization perspective of mountainous rural areas, but some scholars have proposed that rural space also includes non-material spaces such as material space, social space, and cultural space, as well as ownership space, and further exploration of rural space governance is needed.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230509
      Urban green space is one of the ecological landscapes coupling the artificial and natural elements of the city, which provides the basic environment for urban biodiversity on the one hand and the urban thermal ecology on the other, which is of great significance to the ecological barrier to build livability and effectively enhance the thermal comfort and happiness of the community. This paper focuses on the impact of urban green space systems on the thermal environment at the community scale based on the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic ENVI-met model, it is centered on “plant-surface-atmosphere” interactions. This paper takes the renewal and optimal transformation of urban green spaces in the neighborhoods in urban renewal actions as a starting point, and use the ENVI-met model to simulate the thermal environment outdoors in the neighborhoods, and the study the quantitative effects of green space transformation on temperature and humidity, wind speed, and habitat thermal comfort at the neighborhood scale in hot summer weather. Meanwhile, we conduct quantitative analysis of habitat thermal comfort before and after green space transformation in the study area based on the Universal Thermal Climate index (UTCI) model, to clarify the effects of green space combination pattern and its structural layout and vegetation configuration on the local thermal environment, and to propose corresponding optimization strategies. The model od UTCI is a comprehensive consideration of multiple factors such as human metabolic heat dissipation and clothing thermal resistance, combined with a multi node thermophysiological model and clothing models. The research results show that the UTCI is more sensitive to meteorological factors than other thermal comfort indices, and can be used for research on high temperature and human health. In order to provide a quantitative basis for the influence of green space layout and structural configuration on outdoor temperature, humidity, wind speed and thermal comfort in urban renewal. This study takes residential areas in Xi’an city as an example, the experimental data mainly include three kinds of data, including high-resolution Quickbird images, field measurement and field survey data of Xi’an city in June 2019. The field measurement data mainly include patch edge length, perimeter, area, location, shape and relative position relationship with the surrounding buildings, surface temperature and atmospheric temperature data at the sampling locations. The field survey data mainly include patch structure, vegetation type, collocation combination, distribution pattern, etc. Finally, it used the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic model ENVI-met to simulation the thermal environment effect of the “central + residential” green space model, and select three typical samples in the district to simulate the thermal environment and its influencing factors before and after the green space system transformation. The main research conclusions are as follows: (1) the results of the comparative analysis between the actual measurement and simulation programs established in the experimental area show that the model simulation has a high accuracy, with the mean variance of temperature and humidity being 0.67℃ and 2.3%, and the correlation coefficients being 0.88 and 0.91, respectively, indicating that the simulation results of ENVI-met are close to the real situation and can better reflect the changes of temperature and humidity; (2) The pattern distribution and vegetation configuration of the residential green space landscape have obvious effects on the temperature and humidity, wind speed, etc. after the renovation, the temperature decreased by 0.02~1.13 ℃, and the humidity increased by 1.6~5.87%. It shows that the appropriate increase of trees can effectively improve the local thermal environment and human thermal comfort in the renovation process for old neighborhoods; (3) The UTCI results show that trees are effective in improving the thermal comfort of residential green areas, in terms of plant mix, the model combining lawn, shrubs and trees has the best thermal comfort, and ventilation corridors can effectively increase airflow exchange in small areas. So, when planning green areas in residential areas, in addition to considering the green area ratio index, it should focus on the influence of green area pattern, tree, shrub and grass combination structure and ventilation corridor, consider the aesthetic and economic aspects of plant scenery, and also consider the improvement effect of plants on the local thermal environment, and through the reasonable configuration of green area plants in vertical space and their structural layout, so as to effectively improve the quality of living environment in residential areas. Therefore, the renovation of the layout, morphological structure, vegetation mix and ventilation corridor of the existing green areas in the district based on the existing site constraints is a feasible method to improve the thermal comfort of human living in the old district at this stage.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230510
      The accessible travel environment is the yardstick of social civilization. With the deepening of social aging, the construction of an accessible environment is more closely related to the vital interests of the people, the demand for accessible facilities is increasing, urban travel is facing new challenges, and the accessible construction of street environments needs to be improved. First of all, based on the urban street space, the research takes the visual accessibility facilities in the accessible facilities as the research object. According to the degree of visual impairment, visually impaired people are divided into three categories: blind people, low-vision people, and visually restricted people, and the visual impairment performance and ability characteristics of these three types of visually impaired people are analyzed. Combined with the sensory type of sensory compensation of visually impaired people, three types of accessible facilities for visually impaired in the street environment are summarized, including footpath facilities based on tactile compensation, signage guidance facilities based on tactile compensation, and visual supplement, and acoustic signal facilities based on auditory compensation. Secondly, combined with the construction practice of accessible facilities for the visually impaired in three types of street environments in the United States, Britain, and Japan, the characteristics and design points of accessible facilities for the visually impaired are summarized. From the three aspects of the development of relevant laws and regulations, social context, and construction concept, this paper makes a comparative analysis of the different construction modes of visual impairment facilities in the three countries. In the construction of accessible facilities for the visually impaired in the street environment, the United States adopts an equal opportunity model guided by the general principles to protect the interests of the whole; the UK is a multi-integration model guided by inclusive design, focusing on integrating public opinions and fully considering the needs of the largest user groups; Japan is a special difference model under the guidance of high welfare, focusing on the differences between vulnerable groups and healthy people. There are also some differences in the applicable population of visual accessibility facilities in the street environment under the three models. The American model is mainly applicable to the mainstream population of the user pyramid; the Japanese model mainly focuses on the special population of the three layers of the user pyramid, while the British model emphasizes that the differences need to meet the needs and tries to take into account all the layers of the pyramid. Therefore, the construction of facilities guided by the concept of inclusive design has more dynamic and effective advantages, and with the continuous development of the concept of sustainable development in the world, the three countries have introduced the concept of inclusiveness into the practice of accessible environment construction in recent years. The practice of building visually impaired facilities in the street environment gradually presents an inclusive development trend of diversified types, diversified service groups, and improved power guarantees. Based on the construction trend of visually impaired facilities in the street environment of the United States, Britain, and Japan, it can be seen that the inclusive concept is not only conducive to achieving high-quality street space construction, but also reshaping the rights of visually impaired people by emphasizing the maximization of the needs of applicable people and forming specific plans according to local conditions, which is in line with China’s current urban governance concept and social development concept. Therefore, based on the principles and processes of inclusive design, this paper proposes an inclusive design framework for the construction of street accessible environment. The framework is divided into four levels: determining the target population, containing multiple suggestions, updating the overall plan, and developing innovative advantages. Combined with the core content of the four levels, the specific design process of the four stages of inclusive demand-transformation concept-formation plan-perfect guarantee is proposed. Based on the framework, the optimal combination of visually impaired facilities in the street environment can be realized through the survey of crowd needs, to save construction funds to the greatest extent and effectively promote the free travel of more visually impaired people. Finally, combined with the reality that China’s accessible environment construction system has been initially formed, but the cognition is not comprehensive, the type is relatively simple, and the system is not perfect, combined with the current situation of China’s urban street construction, aiming at the inclusive mainstream trend of China’s future docking internationalization, this paper carries out the systematic construction of street environment visual impairment facilities, and puts forward several aspects that need to be considered, such as changing the concept of using people, including the difference of people’s needs, innovating the design of visual impairment facilities and deepening the system management.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230511
      Security is an essential foundation and primary prerequisite for improving urban environmental quality and promoting the vitality of public spaces. It is necessary to incorporate “safety” into the vision of urban environmental design. The core concept of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) theory is to reduce crime and minimize residents’ fear of crime through the rational design and effective use of built environments. Therefore, applying CPTED theory to guide urban design can effectively enhance environmental design from a crime prevention perspective and avoid problematic public space. Furthermore, CPTED theory has been practiced in many countries, with accumulated experience and effectiveness in organizational implementation, guideline development, and practical projects. Summarizing and drawing from international experiences of applying and guiding environmental design based on CPTED theory is thus crucial for sustainable urban development in China. Previous studies in China had made significant progress in the theoretical and empirical studies of CPTED and has confirmed its effectiveness in crime prevention and reducing public fear of crime. However, the practical application of CPTED in China remains limited. In reviewing literature on international CPTED design guidelines, there are several shortcomings. Firstly, the focus of research on foreign CPTED guidelines is primarily on North American countries, which may not fully align with China's unique social development context, thus limiting its applicability in China. Secondly, the elements of CPTED guidelines currently primarily pertain to architectural scale, while urban systems involve a broader range of spatial types, necessitating a more diverse perspective and a more holistic view for further research and supplementation. Japan and China share a similar urbanization process in the East Asian region. Since the introduction of CPTED theory to Japan in the 1970s, it has gradually been applied in urban construction practices and has led to a series of related guidelines. Therefore, Japan’s experience in environmental design for crime prevention has significant relevance and potential for China. This paper aims to review the development of CPTED theory at the city scale in Japan, as well as the compilation and implementation characteristics of 12 CPTED design guidelines. It also conducts case analyses of typical guidelines and strategies, providing valuable insights for China’s future applications. In terms of development stages, CPTED in Japan can be characterized by three phases: initial research with limited practice, rapid and widespread adoption, and matured research and practice. The transition involves a shift from a micro-level building-scale to a macro-level regional-scale. It also shifts from a focus on specific residential environments to the consideration of the entire complex urban system, with a goal of promoting urban or regional sustainability. Regarding the compilation of CPTED guidelines, both research institutions and government agencies are involved, collaborating to ensure the effective application of the guidelines in practice. Compilation principles are based on four fundamental principles: ensuring visibility, enhancing territoriality, controlling pathways, and reinforcing and protecting targets. These principles are adjusted to suit local conditions, with an emphasis on the effective linkage between the physical built environment and social activities. Guidelines can be categorized into national and regional levels, with national guidelines proposing universal environmental design strategies based oncommon urban characteristics and issues, while regional guidelines tailor their objectives and plans to the local context. In terms of research purposes, these guidelines can be classified into two categories: standard regulatory and public advisory. In terms of guideline implementation, the process involves four stages: planning, doing, checking, and acting, forming a continuous cycle. The implementation system includes both rigid controls (legal regulations and government planning) and flexible guidance (design standards and guidelines). Collaboration involves various entities such as neighborhood committees, urban development organizations, non-profit organizations and residents. Finally, considering the current conditions of urban development and planning in China, recommendations are provided for the formulation and implementation of relevant strategies. In terms of guideline principles, safety dimensions should be incorporated promptly, and CPTED principles should be adjusted based on regional characteristics and environmental types. Regarding guideline content, various types of organizations, including research institutions in university and local governments, should collaborate on developing targeted strategies that can be integrated into actual planning systems. In the implementation process, a feedback mechanism should be established based on risk assessment, planning, project implementation, and performance evaluation. Comprehensive assessments of crime-prone environments and crime risk levels should consider both objective material vulnerability and subjective perceptions of security. In terms of collaborative entities, efforts should be made to create a community network and sustain its vitality, leveraging the long-term role of crime prevention. This research provides policy recommendations and insights for the future formulation or implementation of safety related urban design guidelines in China.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230512
      China’s existing higher education institutions campus are large and wide in scope, and many of them have green problems such as declining building performance, aging equipment, and large consumption of energy resources on campus. In the context of green development, the demand for green retrofitting of existing higher education institutions campus has become increasingly obvious. However, at the present stage, China’s campus retrofitting is mostly a passive response to local problems, lacking the overall concept of retrofitting, green retrofitting goals, and theoretical and methodology guidance, and relevant standards do not make enough distinctions in campus retrofitting evaluation so that the evaluation focus is not prominent enough. There is an urgent need for more specific assessment standards to evaluate and guide the corresponding retrofitting work. Based on this starting point, this paper takes the framework construction of Assessment Standard for Green Retrofitting of Higher Education Institutions Campus (ASGREC for short) as the core, analyses the typical characteristics of relevant foreign standards framework by horizontal reference, vertically integrates and analyses the specific differences in the evaluation of campus and retrofitting in relevant domestic standards, and comprehensively summarizes the key points of framework construction by combining the current situation of green construction and retrofitting of higher education institutions campus. The general conception of the framework of ASGREC is put forward. First, this paper reviews the international typical green campus assessment standard horizontally. The relevant standards are divided into derived and independent standards according to the affiliations, and the two typical standards of LEED BD+C: Schools and STARS are selected respectively and compared and analysed from three aspects: system connection, evaluation item classification, evaluation dimension, and elements, to learn from advanced experience. In general, compared with independent assessment standards, the derived standards often have a closer connection with the standards in its evaluation system, which can provide sufficient reference for its campus evaluation. In terms of the classification of evaluation items, controlling the threshold index can promote the development of green campus to be more comprehensive and balanced. In terms of evaluation dimensions and elements, the two standards have different emphases, but there are shortcomings in the macro and comprehensive evaluation. Moreover, LEED BD+C: Schools pay more attention to the construction of green campus hardware and pay less attention to the support of soft environment, while STARS does the opposite. Further, the paper longitudinally combs the relevant standards for the green retrofitting of higher education institutions campus in China and selects the Assessment Standard for Green Campus (GB/T 51356-2019, ASGC for short), Assessment Standard for Green Building (GB/T 50378- 2019, ASGB for short), Assessment Standard for Green Retrofitting of Existing Building (GB 51141- 202X, ASGREB for short) and Assessment Standard for Green Eco-District (GB/T 51255-2017, ASGED for short), which are most relevant to the evaluation of green retrofitting of higher education institutions campus, for integrated analysis, and discusses the particularity of higher education institutions campus and retrofitting evaluation. In general, campus evaluation is macroscopic and comprehensive, with more qualitative indicators, and it also eliminates the microscopic investigation of some buildings and attaches importance to the embodiment of education promotion and campus attributes. The evaluation of retrofitting has the characteristics of difference and suitability, and it is not demanding that the retrofitting achieve the same green level as the new construction, but also through the deletion and adjustment of indicators to make the evaluation more suitable. Taking ASGREB and ASGB as examples, there is a relatively obvious index correlation between the assessment standard for retrofitting and the corresponding assessment standard for new construction. Finally, based on the previous analysis, four key points of assessment standard framework construction are summarized: attaching importance to the correlation with other relevant standards, paying attention to the threshold role and practicability of control items, reflecting the macro and comprehensiveness of campus evaluation dimensions, highlighting the difference and suitability of retrofitting evaluation elements. Based on this, combined with the characteristics of the current green retrofitting of higher education institutions campus in China, the framework of ASGREC is constructed from the aspects of system connection, evaluation item classification, evaluation dimension, and evaluation elements, and the overall conception of the assessment standard framework is put forward, which includes 5 first-level indicators, 21 second-level indicators, and 83 third-level indicators. The framework basically meets the requirements of the main points of assessment standard construction and covers all levels of elements related to the green retrofitting of higher education institutions campus. It’s expected that it will provide references for the formulation and optimization of relevant assessment standards.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230513
      Historical and cultural space is the key element of shaping urban characteristics and highlighting urban culture. At present, China’s urbanization has entered a new stage of transformation and development focusing on improving the quality. Urban development faces both challenges and opportunities, and it is urgent to change the mode of urban development. The 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) proposed that “adhere to the people’s city by the people, the people’s city for the people, improve the level of urban planning, construction and governance, implement urban renewal actions, strengthen urban infrastructure construction, and build livable, resilient and smart cities”, which pointed out the basic direction for the new people centered urbanization in the new era. Among them, historical and cultural space as an important support of urban cultural strategy has been paid attention to. Its protection and cognition is one of the basic conditions for the continuation and inheritance of history and culture. However, rapid urbanization has also brought impacts and challenges to many historical and cultural regions. With the change of production and life style, many historical and cultural features and their spatial carriers have been destroyed and homogenized. The “historical information material space network” based on the historical layer dimension and the “population cognitive map network” based on the cognition of different populations were constructed. Social network analysis (SNA) was used to establish a feedback model for the comparison of two kinds of networks under the three levels of “network group-node” index system. Firstly, through theoretical research and field investigation, this paper studies cultural space and cultural space network, analyzes the layered attributes and perceptual attributes of the cultural space network of ancient towns, and considers the social network analysis method as the analysis. Combining with the layered property of historical and cultural space, the paper researches and stacks historical information to lay the foundation for constructing “historical information material space network”. According to the perception attribute of historical and cultural space, the cognitive map survey of the crowd is carried out, so as to build the “cognitive map network of the crowd”. Combining with social network theory, this paper analyzes the superiority of social network analysis (SNA) and lays a foundat瑩桯牮漠畦杯桲?捴潨来渠楦瑥楥癤敢?晣敫攠摰扲慯捣步?浳漠摯敦氠?捯慧湮?桴敩汶灥?扦略楥汤摢?慣?栠畭浯慤湥?挮攊湓瑥散牯敮摤?桹椬猠瑴潨物楳挠慰污?慥湲搠?捡畲汲瑩略牳愠汯?猠灴慨捥攠???瑥?琠桢敵?獬慤浩敮?琠楡浮敤???瑡桮楴獩?捡潴杩湶楥琠楡癮敡?晹敳敩摳戮愠捃歯?浢潩摮敥汤?慷汩獴潨?戊畴楨汥搠獲?慳?煡畲慣湨琠楩瑮愠瑴楨癥攠?慢湯摶?瘠楰獡畲慴氬?牴敨獥攠愜牨捩桳?慯湲杩汣敡?映潩牮?瑯桲敭?煴畩慯湮琠業瑡慴瑥楲癩敡?爠敳獰敡慣牥挠桮?潴湷?瑲桫攝?浡敮浤漠爜祰?楰湵桬敡牴楩瑯慮渠挊散?潧普?桴楩獶瑥漠牭楡捰愠汮?慴湷摯??挝甠汯瑦甠牔慡汮?獪灩慡捷敡? Ancient Town are constructed respectively. The social network analysis method is innovatively used to establish and construct the “cognitive feedback model” of cultural space from three levels: network, group and node. Compare the cognitive completeness of the overall scale of the network among different groups; at the group level, the number and status of “memory islands” are analyzed by comparing the intermediate points with “blocks” and “tangential points”. At the node level, the imageability and attractiveness of individual nodes are analyzed by weighted results of cognitive frequency and intermediate centrality. The final research results interpret the imageability of the cultural space of Tangjiawan Ancient Town in Zhuhai from different angles through the constructed cognitive feedback model of cultural space. The research shows that: 1) the historical and cultural space either exists or can be recognized; 2) people have a clear cognition of the network structure, but there are differences in scale and scope of cognition; 3) residents and tourists are more likely to appear memory islands and have poor connection; 4) the cognition of nodes shows a trend of high concentration of network nodes. The article further discusses that the city image is not only a symbol or symbol of the city, but also plays an important role in daily life. The superposition of urban images from different perspectives in urban space reveals that urban planning should not only build a spatial pattern highlighting urban characteristics from the top down, but also systematically sort out daily spaces that meet the needs of different groups from the bottom up, enhance urban vitality, and shape a people-oriented city. Exploring the difference mechanism
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230514
      Historical areas and surrounding communities take on dual functions of carrying daily life and continuing traditional culture. This paper defines historic areas and surrounding communities as “historical areas with a certain scale of historical remains and surrounding communities in cities with residential functions, which retain street textures, traditional styles or ethnic local characteristics, reflecting a certain historical period, and of which higher value is entered into the protection lists at all levels through legal procedures”. As crucial parts of urban communities, urban historical areas and surrounding communities have multiple values and functions. Firstly, as basic units of urban community network, the urban historic areas and surrounding communities have values of residence and its relevant commercial use. Secondly, as symbols of local cultural space, the urban historical areas and surrounding communities reflect cultural value of historical heritage and life. Lastly, the urban historic areas and surrounding communities have public values of communication, leisure, cultural entertainment, tourism and civic activities within and outside the communities. The rapid urbanization has a tremendous impact on the daily life of urban historical areas and surrounding communities. To improve the quality of life in historical areas and surrounding communities, the community satisfaction of historical area has gradually become the standard for measuring the success of urban renewal. However, the number of studies on the historical areas and surrounding communities is relatively limited. Drawing on the research perspective of community satisfaction of urban historic areas and surrounding communities, the following two issues are worth in-depth discussion. First, how to establish an evaluation index system for evaluating the satisfaction of historic areas and surrounding communities based on the needs of residents? On one hand, the historical areas and surrounding communities should meet the living needs to the greatest extent, including accessibility, comfort and safety. On the other hand, it should serve the overall planning and the public functions of the cultural space. A more comprehensively established evaluation index system from the perspective of qualitative and quantitative combination directly affects the evaluation of future community planning. The second question is how to incorporate the residents’ questionnaire survey and various indicators based on community satisfaction theory and embed it into early evaluation stage of community planning. The aims are to provide ideological guidance for the establishment of community planning evaluation system and formulate more targeted planning suggestions. Based on the community satisfaction theory and people-oriented community planning, this paper focuses on a case study of Changlefang Area, Xi’an, which contains cultural heritage and communities. First, the paper investigated residents’ perception of the current living situation and made a satisfaction evaluation system for the historic area and surrounding communities. Second, based on the questionnaire survey and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, this paper conducts a comprehensive evaluation of community satisfaction in historical area and surrounding communities. Lastly, based on the evaluation results, planning suggestions are put forward for the improvement of community satisfaction in the historic area, aiming to provide a reference for the sustainable development of other communities in China. The final score results show that the residents’ satisfaction is in descending order as social belonging, place shaping and community environment. Therefore, the community environment is the priority for planning intervention. The result of the research could provide suggestions on how to improve the community satisfaction of historical areas and surrounding communities, including improving the living environment and public space, improving the comfort of place and the diversity of activities through community public space planning, and enhancing the sense of community belonging through the community identification system and urban furniture design. The paper targets to those communities surrounding historical areas which face challenges of sustainable development and provides suggestions on how to integrate residents’ need into community planning. The questionnaire survey and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of community satisfaction method will provide an approach to solve problems in other historical areas and surrounding communities worldwide.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230515
      Traditional settlements, including towns and villages, are an important part of Chinese historical architectural environment, showing a variety of unique spatial characteristics. Since the previous studies mainly focused on the spatial form of cities and towns, and mainly focused on the descriptive analysis, the spatial morphological characteristics of historical settlements in rural areas are unclear. This study proposes a new method to understand the spatial morphological characteristics of rural areas, and analyzes the differences of spatial patterns of traditional rural settlements in China based on syntactic principles. The 9 settlements (3 groups) with obvious regional characteristics were selected as the study objects, which were the Nanliuzhuang village, Baihoubao village and Caotuan village (Group 1) in the North China Plain; the Shitan village, Changxi village and Gaoyang village (Group 2) located in the Yangtze River delta region; as well as the Pingyan village, Pingan village and Tiantou village (Group 3) located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Then the star model is used to reveal the difference of spatial features among different samples. The star model provides a method to interpret the spatial pattern of traditional Chinese settlements, so as to understand whether the spatial pattern of settlements is inclined to organic distribution or regular layout. The star model results show that the traditional settlements pattern in China changes from north to south from standard settlements to deformation settlements and from background settlements to foreground settlements. The Han settlements are more structured than the minority settlements, and the northern settlements tend to be more integrated because of their regular street network structure. In addition, five measures of axiality, curvature, intelligibility, synergy and organic spatial layout are used to explain the differences of spatial structure of traditional settlements in different regions. Among them, the axiality and curvature can measure the deformation degree of the settlement space structure. Intelligibility and synergy measure the legibility and visibility of the spatial structure of a settlement. Organic spatial layout can be used to measure whether the spatial distribution of settlements is uniform. The results of categorized spatial measures show that the Han settlement shows the planning trend of the ideal urban pattern in Kaogongji. Specifically, northern settlements are more axiality and intelligibility than southern settlements, and have straighter street patterns. In the southern settlement, the river is in the integrated core area of the street network, and the spatial layout is more organic, so the river-oriented model can be applied to natural settlements with spatial organic distribution, mainly ethnic minority settlements, and some Han settlements in the south China have this feature too. In traditional feng shui ideal, the location of a settlement should take into account the realistic landscape location, such as sitting north (mountain) and facing south (river). In ancient times, rivers were very important to the spatial layout of settlements, because they not only provided water, but also served as important transportation channels to support economic development. The results found that in southern settlements, rivers tended to intersect with more integrated streets than with more choice degree streets. This further indicates that rivers play an important guiding role in the spatial layout of settlements in the south China. The difference of integration is more significant than the difference of choice in the spatial attribute of the decisive axis. The results show that the spatial pattern of traditional settlements in China can be divided into axiality-oriented and concentric river. The former reflects the spatial pattern of “ideal city” in Kaogongji, while the latter reflects the thought of harmonious coexistence between human and nature in feng shui ideal. This study uses a series of mathematical measurement methods to explore the spatial characteristics of Chinese traditional settlements, which can promote the expansion of the interpretation of Chinese traditional culture and contribute to a more accurate understanding of the spatial distribution pattern of Chinese traditional settlements. For example, in Confucianism, the regular layout pattern of Han settlements leads to significant spatial axiality, which further reflects the regular spatial cognitive pattern of five directions in ancient China, such as east, west, south, north and central. And the influence of feng shui ideal (the correlation between human and nature embodied in the natural landscape) on the spatial pattern of settlements.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230516
      In the process of urbanization, due to the loss of population and the rupture of historical context and other reasons, many villages, especially traditional villages with rich cultural resources, their internal environment and traditional features have been changed and destroyed in various forms, and the problems of cultural landscape construction have emerged in an endless stream. Traditional village cultural landscape is an important part of the cultural diversity of our country, its demise is bound to hinder the process of cultural Renaissance, so the protection and activation of traditional village cultural landscape is urgent. Since the 21st century, the protection of traditional villages has attracted more and more attention, and the state and other places have established “traditional villages directory” to assist the protection and development of traditional villages. The development of traditional village cultural landscape is also ushered in a new historical opportunity, and needs to find a guiding method and theoretical basis to keep pace with The Times to realize the new era value. At present, the theory of digital protection has played an important role in the field of intangible cultural heritage, and also provided new technical support for the protection of cultural landscape of traditional villages. At the same time, the proposal of landscape gene theory also provides a new idea for the study of traditional village cultural landscape. Based on this, this paper attempts to take traditional villages in Gaochun District as an example, introduce new theoretical methods of cultural landscape research, and explore the digital protection of traditional village cultural landscape in Gaochun District based on GIS technology. Taking Gaochun District of Nanjing as an example, this paper constructs the spatial database of traditional village cultural landscape in Gaochun District with the help of database technology and ArcGIS platform. Through the organization of spatial data, attribute data and media data, the spatial location information and characteristic information of traditional village landscape genes in Gaochun district are stored and processed, and displayed in the form of map visualization, so as to realize digital protection and provide guarantee for the lasting retention of traditional village cultural landscape in Gaochun district. Firstly, the gene of traditional village landscape in Gaochun district was analyzed. The relevant research methods of landscape gene theory were used to classify and recognize traditional village landscape genes, and finally identified as environmental characteristics, layout characteristics, architectural characteristics and cultural characteristics. Natural environment, human environment, village form, spatial layout, traditional residential architecture, subjective public architecture, detailed decoration, cultural thought, art culture and folk custom 10 categories; It is further subdivided into 21 subcategories. It provides data support for the subsequent construction of landscape gene spatial database. Because landscape gene theory has a unique advantage in the interpretation of cultural landscape, cultural landscape recognition under the landscape gene theory includes not only the environmental factors affecting the formation of cultural landscape, but also the rich connotation of cultural landscape. Based on this, on the basis of the existing digital protection methods, combined with the landscape gene theory, this paper introduced GIS platform and proposed the establishment of traditional village landscape gene spatial database in Gaochun district to realize the digital protection of traditional village cultural landscape in Gaochun district in a more comprehensive way. In the process of constructing digital protection approach, digital protection theory and landscape gene theory provide solid theoretical support, and database construction technology and GIS technology are introduced as key technologies. As an important technology of data retention in digital protection, database construction plays an important role in the current digital protection field. GIS has the function of storing attribute data and spatial data. Using the data storage function and spatial analysis function provided by GIS can realize the matching of landscape genes and spatial environment, which is also the basis of the realization of landscape gene spatial database. The spatial database system of traditional village landscape gene in Gaochun district stored the detailed information of regional landscape gene, so as to realize the subsequent update and maintenance of landscape gene information. The construction of the database is based on the geospatial database of ArcGIS. According to the classification and identification results of traditional village landscape genes in Gaochun District in Chapter 3, various landscape genes are classified and encoded in the database table. Finally, coding information, feature information and media information of landscape genes are imported into Geodatabase to realize the construction of landscape gene spatial database.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230517
      Historic urban landscape is the result of long-term interaction between people and land, and it is the product of continuous layering in the long process of urban historical development. With the continuous and dynamic evolution and development of city, historic urban landscape will inevitably change, this requires us to carry out the protection of urban historical heritages in a broader urban context and geographical environment, and to focus on the integrated development and sustainable development balance between urban historical heritages and current life. Under the continuous influence of different stages of urban historical development, historic urban landscape exhibits environmental complexity and cultural diversity. How to effectively control its “immutable” core parts and reasonably control and manage its “changeable” contemporary elements has become an important content of current research in the field of urban heritage protection. How to effectively control their “immutable” core parts and reasonably control and manage their “changeable” contemporary elements has become an important topic of current research in the field of urban heritage protection. Historic urban landscape not only provide a new concept and perspective for observing and recognizing contemporary urban historical heritage, but also provide a new method and tool for protecting and managing dynamic and constantly changing urban historical heritage resources. The evolution and development of cities is a continuous and dynamic process, in which not only modern and comfortable living environments and rapidly changing urban landscapes are created, but also urban heritages are destroyed. The protection of urban heritages is also facing new challenges. In the new era, city needs new development, which requires the development and utilization of urban resources, inevitably conflicting with the historical landscape environment. The original spatial pattern and landscape form of the city have been destroyed, buildings and streets rich in regional characteristics and historical context have gradually disappeared, and the environment full of historical information has gradually changed beyond recognition. In the face of various complex situations brought about by globalization, urbanization, and rapid social development in the new century, the living environment of urban historical landscapes is very worrying. Faced with these new situations, it is necessary for us to deeply analyze and study historic urban landscape. By effectively identifying its landscape characteristics and recording the state and evolution of complex layers, we can recognize its value and understand its significance. This will help us grasp the most essential and core features in the dynamic change process of historic urban landscape through different historical layers, making the overall structure and development context of historic urban landscape more clearly identified, thereby providing new methods and means for comprehensively identifying, evaluating, protecting, and managing historic urban landscape in the context of rapid urban development. In this context, the article focuses on how to conduct characteristic recognition and layered cognition of historic urban landscape. Firstly, the author combs and classifies the constituent elements of historic urban landscape from both external forms and internal values, while paying attention to the continuous evolution of the same historical landscape elements through time and space, and conducting research and analysis on the factors that affect change. Secondly, through these sorted and classified urban historical landscape elements, the author further analyzes the natural environmental characteristics, spatial location characteristics, architectural characteristics, regional characteristics, cultural characteristics, and other aspects contained therein from the material, social, and cultural levels. Finally, the author conducts an “anatomical” slice analysis of the historic urban landscape using the method of historical staging, decomposing it into several different layers, and then interprets and analyzes the historical landscape of a single layer. Through various historical sections, the author understands and grasps the entire process of dynamic changes in the historic urban landscape, establishes the time and space relationships of the entire process of dynamic changes, and explores the laws and values contained therein. The characteristic recognition and layered cognition of historic urban landscapes can help balance and manage the relations between urban heritage protection and contemporary urban development, and enable historical landscapes to glow with new vitality in the new stage of urban development. Using the concept of “layer” to recognize and grasp the core characteristics of historic urban landscape, both in terms of the breadth and depth of the temporal dimension and the spatial dimension, it provides potential possibilities for the investigation, classification, and value connotation research of historic urban landscapes, as well as their integration and utilization as cultural resources. Nanjing is a typical representative of a historical city in China. Based on the above analytical logic, this article conducts an empirical analysis using the city of Nanjing as an example. Combining the historical staging method, it analyzes the historical landscape of the city of Nanjing in the context of its main historical cycles of development, sorts out its historical layers and spatiotemporal evolution in stages, and explores its essential characteristics. Finally, the article puts forward the strategies for the protection and innovative utilization of historic urban landscape in Nanjing, such as constructing a grid system of anchor points and realizing the benign mutual infiltration between the heritage area and the new area; weaving the texture of landscape space, and strengthening cultural identity and collective memory; and establishing the endogenous logic of stratification and evolution, and paying attention to multi-cultural expression, which is to achieve the sustainable development of the historic urban landscape in Nanjing City.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230518
      The deterioration of the current climate situation has led to frequent occurrences of extreme weather around the world, and typhoons, storm surges and other meteorological and water hazards pose a serious security threat to China’s coastal cities. Emergency shelters are an important infrastructure to ensure the safety of cities in disaster scenarios. Therefore, the article takes the typical coastal city of Xiamen as an example to analyze the disaster impacts and evaluate the distribution, accessibility, and serviceability of emergency shelters under storm surge disaster scenarios, to provide certain references for the urban resilience construction of coastal cities under storm surge disaster scenarios. The first and second chapters of the article are a review of the research on the two keywords of storm surge disaster and emergency shelter, a logical establishment of the simulation scenario of storm surge disaster and the research on the configuration and evaluation of emergency shelters. Starting from Chapter 3 is the design and experimental calculation part of the study, Chapter 3 first assumes a storm surge sea level rise scenario and conducts a questionnaire survey to validate the necessity of the study further, and then conducts a simulation operation of sea level rise and counts the urban infrastructures that may be affected, the result showed Xiamen’s 331 and 632 important urban infrastructures will be at risk of sea level rise of 1.08 m and 4.92 m, respectively. Chapter 4 is about the study of emergency shelters, firstly, the number of configurations, distribution density, and crowd carrying capacity were analyzed; then, three evacuation scenarios in disasters were assumed (Scenario A: schools, healthcare facilities, transportation stations, and commercial residences in the affected area as the starting point, and shelters as the endpoint; Scenario B: urban road intersections within the affected area as the starting point, and shelters as the endpoint; Scenario C: other shelters to the fixed emergency shelters) were analyzed for the accessibility of emergency evacuation sites, followed by an analysis of the functional mix of the city which the Shannon Diversity Index reflected, and the service area of the evacuation site. Chapter 5 provides a descriptive evaluation of the distribution and configuration of emergency shelters in Xiamen, and makes recommendations for upgrading the number and increasing the variety of configurations. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes the full study and draws the following conclusions. (1)Coastal cities like Xiamen face risks from sea-level rise, including seawater inundation, urban flooding, and storm surges. Although early warnings for such disasters are possibly provided alerts by emergency and meteorological departments, because people may struggle to find refuge due to inadequate shelter distribution or evacuation guidance in disasters involving heavy rainfall and storm surges. (2) Stormwater impact mainly lies in the complex bay area, and the simulation of the potential risk areas in Xiamen City, including the northern part of Xiamen Island, Haicang District and Xiang’an District south of the coastal areas, Haicang North, Jimei South, Tong’an and Xiang’an junction and other inlets or bay terrain. Xiamen City, more than Ⅲ emergency shelter crowd carrying capacity does not fully match the population distribution, the southern Jimei District and Xiang’an District,lack central Xiamen Island, Xiamen is more perfect but the carrying capacity of the centre compared to the population distribution in the west. As the “new development pole” of Xiamen, Xiang’an District is weak in terms of emergency shelters, the future development should increase the construction layout of transportation, health care, and living supply facilities. transportation, medical and living supply facilities should be increased in the urban construction process. (3) The coverage of evacuation sites in the off-island area is insufficient, which may be because the road network is not as rich and complete as the on-island area and the distribution of evacuation sites is relatively small. After adding hospitals and schools as evacuation sites, the coverage of the service area is significantly improved, and the hospital and school complexes can effectively increase the carrying capacity of evacuation sites, especially for disaster scenarios such as typhoons, storm surges, and torrential rains, in which outdoor evacuation is not possible. (4) The number of facilities that can provide emergency rescue, external transportation and living services in the service area of emergency shelters outside of Xiamen Island, except for the southern part of Jimei District, is on the low side, and the degree of mixing of urban functions is low, so that there may be hidden dangers in guaranteeing rescue, material and transportation services in times of disaster. A greater mix of urban functions would help to improve this and increase people’s sense of security.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230519
      With the rapid urbanization of China, the urban developing land is spreading outward. The phenomenon of separation between housing and employment is becoming increasingly serious. Long commuting brings physical and mental harm and social problems. The analysis of job-housing relationship is conducive to the rational allocation of work and residence space, reducing urban commuting time and costs, improving the efficient utilization of urban space, and promoting high-quality urban development. The previous research on the relationship between employment and housing mainly focused on census data and questionnaire survey data. With the application and development of big data, new types of data such as bus swiping data (SCD), social media data, Baidu Huiyan data, and mobile signaling data are gradually being applied. However, these studies often analyze the job-housing relationship at a specific time, lacking analysis of the dynamic changes. Chongqing, a typical cluster city, is located in the southwest of inland China. During the rush hour, there is a high demand for traffic and severe congestion in Chongqing, which seriously affects the urban efficiency and the residents’ health. Based on the mobile signaling data, this paper analyzes the changes in job-housing relationship in the central urban area of Chongqing in 2015 and 2021. The mobile signaling data is provided by Smart Footprint Data Technology Co., Ltd. after desensitizing and expanding the data generated by all Unicom mobile phone users in the central urban area of Chongqing. These data are composed of 250 m * 250 m grids, and are divided into working population data, residential population data, and the average origin to destination (OD) data of one month. Based on the calculation of the kernel density, the ratio of occupation to housing, the employment self-sufficiency, with referring to the urban spatial pattern of the “Chongqing Urban Rural Master Plan (2007-2020)”, this paper compares the job-housing relationship in the central urban area of Chongqing from two levels. The results show that: 1) With the development of cities and urban expansion, the phenomenon of separation of occupation and residence is inevitable. From 2015 to 2021, 21 clusters in the central urban area of Chongqing have significant differentiation in terms of job and housing, and shows a trend of northward development, which is consistent with the urban functional layout in the overall urban planning. 2) There is a basic balance between employment and housing in the central urban area of Chongqing in 2015 and 2021. A comparative analysis of job-housing relationship in five major regions shows that there are significant changes in employment and housing between the eastern and southern regions of Chongqing. The employment and housing in the northern part of the eastern region tends towards employment, while the employment and housing in the southern and southern parts of the eastern region tends towards residence. In addition, a comparative analysis of 21 clusters indicates that there is a significant polarization in the relationship among clusters, with an overall trend of northward development. And the decrease in self-sufficiency is significant, and residents’ employment is no longer limited in a small range, resulting in an increase in the proportion of commuting among different clusters. 3) In the context of the new round of urban and rural planning, various clusters will be integrated and reclassified, and the job residence relationship analysis will be conducted based on 9 clusters. The results show that the functions of Yuzhong, Nanpeng, Taojia, and Longsheng clusters are biased towards employment, the functions of the Chayuan, Beibei, and Diaoyuzui-Longzhouwan clusters are biased towards residence, the functions of the Liangjiang and Jinfeng clusters are balanced between job and residence. The commuting efficiency of Nanpeng and Longsheng is relatively low. The matching degree between job and housing in Chayuan cluster is relatively low, as well as the commuting efficiency. There are still some shortcomings in this study, and further research is urgently needed. As the mobile signaling data obtained in this study only have O (starting point) and D (ending point), there is a lack of path expression, and cannot form a complete travel chain. As a result, the traffic flow cannot be loaded onto the road and cannot quantitatively evaluate the job-housing and the commuting. In the future, the specific reasons for congestion and the factors affecting residents’ excessive commuting would be explored.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230520
      In the construction of Chengdu-Chongqing Twin Cities Economic Circle, the Chengdu Chongqing High Speed Railway, as an important driving force for the integrated development, brings new development opportunities to small and medium-sized cities along the route. At the same time, as the key area of inter-city and intra-city connection, the more complete the construction of high speed railway station area is, the more convenient services can be provided for the flow of talents, which can effectively promote the economic linkage and development of the urban agglomeration. Therefore, the construction of small and medium-sized station areas has put forward higher requirements, which are not only limited to the satisfaction of basic transportation functions, but also conducive to the positive linkage between Chengdu-Chongqing cities, to improve the quality of small and medium-sized cities and the quality of life of the residents, and to explore China’s new urbanization road. However, problems such as unclear positioning, slow development, and lack of vitality are common, which directly affect the role of station engine, thus leading to small and medium-sized cities not being able to continuously link with the central city externally to get spillover dividends, and internally not being able to enhance the radiation range of the station area to support the development of industry and population in the new city. Therefore, relying on multi source spatial and temporal data such as RS historical remote sensing and Baidu API points of interest, the study selects nine station areas along the Chengdu-Chongqing high-speed railroad as the research object, and explores the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of station area elements and their mutual influences from the three aspects of development mode, development speed and functional positioning. It is found that: small and medium-sized station areas have formed an obvious point-axis radiation development pattern, and the development of the old city-oriented area is faster than that of the old city-backward area; among the factors influencing the development speed, the city scale has no significant influence on it; among the functional positioning, the development of transportation subsidiaries is slow, the company’s industry is not associated with the city characteristics, and other services are not dynamic enough. And based on the point axis radiation pattern and spatial value, the following countermeasures are proposed: 1) Enhance transportation accessibility. On the one hand, from the macro site selection to minimize the small and medium-sized cities separated from the location of the site should be contained and adjacent to the main type; on the other hand, to strengthen the station area road system and the urban arterial road system of a variety of articulation possibilities, to increase the density of the station area side road network, focusing on the development of the city center and the link of the public transport system.2) Grasp the underlying advantages. Concentrate high-tech industries and tertiary industries that are related to characteristic industries and require high transportation accessibility in the vicinity of the station, so as to promote the development of station areas in small and medium-sized cities.3) Control the development sequence. According to the ranking of space development value, the first stage gives priority to the development of the space adjacent to the station and the point axis corridor area, which is convenient for displaying the city image and playing a demonstration effect. Completing the necessary supporting facilities, gradually accumulating popularity, increasing the vitality of the station area and its linkage with the city; then taking the area facing the city as the key development object in the second stage, developing industries and their supporting facilities, injecting power for the station area and the city; finally, after the value of the station area has been further enhanced, the development of the area backing to the city will be carried out to solve the residential demand of the overflow commuters from the center city on the one hand, and on the other hand, continue to improve the facilities and supporting facilities to systematically construct the ecological circle of the high-speed rail. On the other hand, continue to improve the facilities, and systematically build a high-speed rail ecosystem. At the key stage of innovative development, the study summarizes the spatial-temporal evolution law embodied in the role of various elements at the present stage, which provides a theoretical basis for the future planning and development of high-speed railway station areas in Chengdu-Chongqing small and medium-sized cities. At the same time, with the deepening of regional integration development, the linkage role of each station area to the urban agglomeration will become more and more prominent, and the study will continue to follow up and superimpose and correlate with the data in different fields, such as cell phone signaling, Baidu heat, etc., so as to deconstruct the relationship of elemental flow between station areas of small and medium-sized cities from the perspective of the city agglomeration’s linkage development, to push forward the coordinated development of the areas along the route, and to better realize the synergistic construction of Chengdu-Chongqing area.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230521
      The Fourteenth Five-Year Plan proposes to consolidate the achievements of basic balanced compulsory education, further improve the standards for schooling, and strive to promote the quality and balanced development of compulsory education. Promoting the equal development of compulsory education is one of the important basic conditions for consolidating the achievements of poverty alleviation and realizing common prosperity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, thus making it all the more necessary to promote the balanced development of compulsory education for students enjoying equitable and high-quality compulsory education. At present, there is a lack of studies evaluating the balance of compulsory education resources based on the unique regional characteristics of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and taking the typical cities in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as the empirical targets. At the same time, the evaluation indicators of existing studies are not geographically specific, and few studies include the indicators reflecting students’ comprehensive quality of education or accommodation conditions in evaluating the allocation level of compulsory education resources. Nyingchi city, a typical city in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, was taken as an example in this study. The spatial allocation pattern of compulsory education resources in Nyingchi was analyzed by using kernel density analysis with the data of schools, teachers and students in each district and county of Nyingchi, then the allocation level of compulsory education resources in Nyingchi was measured by adopting entropy value method, and finally the equilibrium of spatial allocation of compulsory education resources was explored by applying the coefficient of variation. The results are as follows. Firstly, among all the districts and counties, Bayi District has the strongest teacher force and good configuration. The teachers in Bayi District, Zayu County and Gongbo’gyamda County are well allocated, but there is significant spatial heterogeneity and serious structural deficiency. The location distribution of primary and junior high schools in each district and county shows the characteristics of “junior high schools located at the district and county level and primary schools located at the township level”. The spatial distribution of primary and junior high schools presents a basic pattern of “more in the west and less in the east, more in the north and less in the south”, both of which are highly clustered in Bayi District. Secondly, the comprehensive allocation level of compulsory education resources of 61 primary schools in Nyingchi City is within the range of [0.095, 0.698], and the comprehensive allocation level of compulsory education resources among schools is significantly different. The primary schools with relatively low allocation are mainly distributed in counties in the periphery of urban areas, with the highest allocation level in Bayi District and the lowest allocation level in Gongbo’gyamda County. The overall primary education in Nyingchi City is at the middle and lower level, and the spatial allocation of primary education resources at county level is uneven, with disparate levels and obvious differences. The comprehensive allocation level of educational resources of the 10 junior high schools at the city level is within the range of [0.186, 0.372], and there is also certain variation in the allocation of resources among the schools. Bayi District has always been the district with the most abundant junior high school education resources at all levels, and also the area with the highest allocation level of education resources. The overall level of education resources of primary and junior high school in Nyingchi City is not high, and there is a disparity in the level of the districts and counties, with the allocation level of education resources in areas farther away from the central districts and counties being in a disadvantaged position. Thirdly, the primary education resources of each district and county in Nyingchi City have reached the basic equilibrium state of the county, but there are different aspects of unbalanced allocation in districts and counties on individual indicators. The resource allocation of primary schools in Zayu County was the most balanced, while that of Bomi County was the worst, with county-scale primary education resource and facility allocation still varying widely, with inadequate facilities and a mix of good and bad. Resource allocation for both primary and junior high schools at the city level is basically balanced, and the equilibrium of education resource allocation for junior high schools is relatively high. In terms of the equilibrium of education resource allocation and specific education resources and facilities of primary and junior high schools at city level, there are still some differences in individual indicators. In the future, it is still necessary to pay attention to the balanced development of educational resources both at the city and county level, optimize the allocation of education resources, narrow the gap, and make up for shortcomings. Finally, this study puts forward suggestions on the spatial optimization of compulsory education resources in Nyingchi City from two aspects: one is to allocate more resources to the areas with inadequate education resources, and the other is to pay more attention to the schools with lower levels in resource allocation.
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230522
      Through constant “trial and error”, the traditional houses of the region, which have survived the test of time, have demonstrated the natural trade-offs, the applicable social choices and the historical vein of sustainable development, and are the product of the dual relationship between natural ecosystems and human social practices. In recent years, traditional houses have been replaced by a large number of new houses imitating modern urban architecture, which simply meet the demand for functional space diversification, but have become representatives of ecological fragility, poor quality and lack of culture, and are facing difficulties. It has become a research hotspot to dig deep into the green attributes and ecological experiences hidden in the architectural archetypes of traditional dwellings. The western region of Yunnan Province, with its low altitude, high temperature and high humidity, has a hot and rainy hot and humid climate. People of the Dai ethnic group have created Dai bamboo buildings with ventilation and heat dissipation, sun and rain protection, and climate adaptation according to local conditions and materials. After thousands of years of inheritance and development, this passive settlement mode continues to this day, with the Dai bamboo buildings in the Mengla area being the most representative. Based on the theory of passive climate design, this paper focuses on the Shui Dai dry bamboo buildings of the Dai family in Mengla area, takes the architectural prototype as the research object, and refines the passive design prototype strategy (hereinafter referred to as the “prototype strategy”) for the residential buildings to cope with the hot and humid climate, and compares the passive design standard strategy (hereinafter referred to as the “prototype strategy”) with that obtained from the analysis and calculation of the Climate Consultant software. We compare the standard passive design strategy (hereinafter referred to as the “standard strategy”) calculated by the Climate Consultant software, explore the response and complement of the prototype strategy to the standard strate桧?愬猠?慮楤爠?桸異湬杯??愠椊湴敨?琠楧汲敥獥?愠湣摨?杲牡慣獴獥?物潳睴?牣潳漠景楦渠杴?瑥漠?敥晳晩敤捥瑮楴癩敡汬礠?牵敩摬畤捩敮?琠桭敯?桥敬慳琠?杮慤椠湴?潥晩?琠桩敮?扥畲楮污摬椠湣杨???湣??瑲敩牳浴獩?潳昮?楔湨獥甠氊慳瑴極潤湹?獥瑸牰慬瑯敲来祳??瑨桥攠?牲敥獥灮漠湣獨敡?浡散慴獥畲物敳獴?楣湳挠汯畦搠敲?楳湩摤潥潮牴?灡潬渠摡?晣楨物整??桴畵浲慥渠?扮潤搠祩?敳瘠慩灮潨牥慲瑥楮潴渠?桩敳慤瑯?搬椠獡獮楤瀠愊瑦楩潮湤??敯瑵捴??周桥攠?潣癯敬牯慧汩汣?牬攠獷灩潳湤獯敭?牡慮瑤攠?楮獨????????渠?瑡整牨洠獯?漠晲?牳慩楤湥?慴湩摡?搠慢浵灩?灤物潮潧晳椠湩杮?獨瑯牴愠瑡敮杤礠??瑭桩敤?牡敲獥灡潳渮猠攊?浦整慥獲甠牣敡獬?極湬捡汴畩摯敮?慡瑮瑤椠捡?晡汬潹潳物?漠晢?戠慃浬扩潭潡?扥甠楃汯摮楳湵杬??摮潴甠扳汯敦?獷瑡敲敥瀬?獴汨潥灲敥?牡潲潥映?′搠牳祴?牮慤楡汲?猠瑰牡畳捳瑩當牥攠??敩硭瑡整牥渠愊汤??灩潧牮挠桭?慴湨摯?牳愠楡獮敤搠?晥污潳潵牲??攠瑩据??呥桮敧?瑡漬琠慷汨?牣敨猠灡潲湥猠敤?牶慩瑤敥?椠獩??は?╳???獳?晡潮牤?瑲桤攠?整湲敡牴来祧?捥潳測猠敩牮癣慬瑵楤潩湮?猠琊牳慯瑬敡杲礠??瑡桤敩?牧攬猠灶潥湮獴敩?浡整慩獯畮爬攠獴?楥湲捭污畬搠敩摮?獵敬慡獴潩湯慮氬?捨汥潡瑴栠楣湯杮??睲潶牡湴?扯祮?甠獲敡物獮?慡湮摤?捭潯浩灳牴敵桲敥渠獰楲癯整?扣畴楩汯摮椬渠朊?摮敤猠楥杮湥?浧敹愠獣畯牮敳獥??敡瑴捩??吮栠敔?潲癯敵牧慨氠汴?牥攠獲灥潦湩獮敥?牥慮瑴攠?睦愠獴???ば╲?呴桯整?牰敥猠畳汴瑲獡?潥晧?瑥桳攠?獮瑤甠摴票?猠档潯睭?瑡桲慡瑴?瑶桥攠?浡楮湡楬浹畳浩?愠湯摦??浨慥砠楳浯畦浴?牡敲獥瀠潡湮獡敬?牳慩瑳攠獲?潳晵?瑴桳攬??慨楥?扲慥浳扰潯潮?扥甠楡汮摤椠湡杤?慩牴捩桯楮琠敯捦琠畄牡慩氠?灡牭潢瑯潯琠祢灵敩獬?瑩潮?琠桴敯?猊瑲慥湳摰慯牮摤?獴瑯爠慴瑨敥朠楳整獡?楤湡?瑤攠牳浴獲?潴晥?獩桥慳搠楡湲来??桥敲慩瑶?灤爮漠瑉敮挠瑴楥潲湭??牯慦椠湳?灡牤潩瑮敧挠瑳楴潲湡???浹漬椠獴瑨略爠敲?灳牰潯瑮敳捥琠業潥湡??桲敥慳琠?捩潮湣獬敵牤癥愠瑴楨潥渠?慯湬摯?敹渙敳爠朜祭?据潯湰獯敬特瘠慦瑯楲潥湳?愝爠敥???╲?慮湭摥????╨?牧敨猠灣敥捩瑬楩癮敧氬礠??睥楰琠桥?慶湥?愬瘠敡牮慤朠敳?牡敤獩灮潧渠獰敯?牣慨琬攠?潥晴?????╥??呶桥敲?楬湬猠畲晥晳楰捯楮敳湥琠??牴敥猠灩潳渠猱攰‰漥昮?獏潮洠整?獩瑳爠慢瑡敳杩楳攬猠?捨慥渠?扳敥?捯潦洠灬汯敷洠敨湥瑡整搠?扴祯?敡晧晥攠捣瑯楥癦敦?浣敩瑥桮潴搠獯?愠湷摯?浤攠愊獰畡牮敥獬??呡桬牬漬甠杢桡?瑢桯敯?慦湥慮汣祥猠楷獡?潬昬?瑢桡敭?杯牯攠敦湬?捯桲愠牥慮捣瑬敯牳極獲瑥椠捳獴?慵湣摴?敲捥漠汣潡杮椠捡慬汳??睢楥猠摡潤浤?潤映?瑯栠敧??慥椠?瑬牡慹搠楴瑯椠潴湨慥氠?牦敦獥楣摴敩湶瑥楮慥汳?戠畯楦氠摳楯湬条?瀠牳潨瑡潤瑩祮灧攬??瑯桷椠獴?獥瑲畭摡祬?牣敯癮敤慵汣獴?瑶桩整?猠捡楮敤渠瑬楯晷椠捨?灡牴椠湳捴楯灲污敧獥?漠晉?琠桴敥?敭捳漠汯潦朠楶捥慮汴?摬敡獴楩杯湮?捳潴湲瑡牴潥汧?琬栠整潨牥礠?潥晳?牯敮杳楥漠湭慥污??瑲牥慳搠楩瑮楣潬湵慤汥?扡畣楨汩摥楶湩杮獧??灩牮潤癯楯摲攠獶?慲?瑩档敡潬爠敳瑰楡捣慥氠?扨慥獲業獡?映潰牲?瑳桳敵?摥攠獶楥杮湴??捡潴湩獯瑮爠畴捨瑲楯潵湧?愠湯摰?楮渠桩敮牤楯瑯慲渠捬敡?潯晵?爬攠獧楲摯敵湮瑤椠慦汬?扯畲椠汥摬楥湶条獴?楯湮?栠潴瑯?愠湡摴?桩畣洠楦摬?慯牲攠慡獮??慴湩摬?栠敲汯灯獦?瑮桧攬??楴湣栮攠牔楨瑥愠湴捯整?潬映?瑥牳慰摯楮瑳楥漠渊慲污?慥爠捩桳椠琶攷挥琮甠牓慵汰?捬略汭瑥畮牴敡?慹猠?睥敡汳汵?慥獳?瑴桯攠?牤敤湲敥睳慳氠?慨湥搠?摡散癫攠汯潦瀠浲敥湳瑰?潮晳?朠牷敥敲湥?扭畡楩汮摬楹渠杶獩?楬湡?牥攠杰楬潡湮慮汩?癧椠汷汩慴杨攠獳?attered layout, open garden layout, high porosity wall surface, double-layer tiles, and regional materials and construction methods that meet the need for ventilation and heat dissipation. For the thermal insulation strategy, response measures include log bamboo tile exterior surfaces, few or no windows, and an overall response rate of 75 per cent. The lack of response can be compensated for by using measures suc
      DOI: 10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230523
      As a typical traditional military defensive settlement, cantonment is of great significance to recognize its spatial form and construction wisdom for its scientific protection and sustainable development. The article takes Bao’an four cantonments in Tongren City as the research object, and analyzes their spatial morphological characteristics by several mathematical methods. Bao’an four cantonments, namely Bao’an, Wutun, Nianduhu and Guomari, are located in the valley area of Longwu River, a tributary of the upper Yellow River. They not only carry rich historical and cultural heritage, but also are typical representatives of ancient cantonment in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In the early stage of the study, the formation history and current situation characteristics of Bao’an four cantonments were briefly summarized. Then, through AutoCAD software, the outer contour lines of buildings and public activity places, the street road network and the border of Tunpu are digitized, and their building bottom, public space bottom and road axis are obtained. The boundary shape index and the fractal dimension of public space are used to determine the geometric shape of the military camp boundary, and to quantify the degree of compactness and structure of the internal space form of the cantonment. Although the boundary of Bao’an four cantonments is fingerlike, its shape tendency is different. The Nianduhu cantonment is banded, while the other three cantonments are clumpy (Tab.2). Generally speaking, the finger-shaped boundary shape means that the security four cantonments have a high spatial compactness, which is due to the need of military defense function and the influence of local natural geographical environment. There are few agricultural lands around cantonment, and the finger-shaped layout can not only reduce the occupation of cultivated land, but also facilitate the development of agricultural production activities. The fractal dimension values of public space in Bao’an four cantonments are all greater than 1.5 (Tab.3), and the cantonments are strongly structured. This shows that although they are located in different areas, the cantonments are all confined by the fortress wall, and they rely on less public space to organize more residential buildings and public buildings, which is compact. At the same time, Cantonment is a kind of densely distributed settlement of construction groups, so it is suitable to use the axis analysis method in space syntax to analyze and calculate the degree of integration, coordination and control of Bao’an four cantonments, and analyze the spatial similarity and difference between them. The axis of the warm color system of the overall integration degree of Bao’an four cantonments (Fig.6) is mainly concentrated in the central area of the cantonments, indicating that the center of most cantonments is the most accessible and dynamic area, which is closely related to the daily life of residents. The warm color axis of local integration (Fig.7) is mainly distributed in the main entrance and exit of cantonments and its connected streets, or the main movable nodes and their connected streets. For example, Bao’an cantonment is mainly distributed in Dusi Yamen, Chenghuang Temple, Guandi Temple, etc. These spaces have the function of defending the enemy and guarding the passage. The coordination degree of Bao’an four cantonments (Fig.8) is less than the highly correlated level of 0.7, that is, the fitting level of local integration and global integration is not high as a whole. This shows that in order to ensure the safety and defense of the military barracks, attention should be paid to the diversity and difference of local spatial forms during construction, so as to avoid the overall spatial forms being easily recognized and understood. The control degree (Fig.9) of Bao’an four cantonments is mostly blue and light blue in cool color, accounting for more than 65% of the total number of axes, indicating that the mutual control degree and influence of each space in the cantonments are low, and the shielding of a single space is good. The reason is that there are no clear primary and secondary roads, many narrow and tortuous streets and lanes, and many lanes are dead ends, and most intersections are T-shaped, forming a more complicated spatial form, which makes the space of the military camp more private and defensive. The results show that the border shapes of the Fortress are finger-shaped with high compactness and strong structure. The central area has high global integration and accessibility, but the coordination degree of local space is low as a whole, and the ability to perceive the whole space from connectivity is low. Although the degree of mutual control of the interior space is low, it is well sheltered. From these, it can be perspective that the superb wisdom of the ancient Chinese in the construction of cantonments is to construct a compact space enclosure, a center with high accessibility and a strong defensive street layout. These conclusions are conducive to the value recognition, reasonable protection and inheritance development of ancient cantonment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


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