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中国传统地域建筑文化的当代重构议题 ——基于徽州合院形式的设计探索
孔宇航1, 陈 怡2, 王安琪3
1.( 通讯作者):天津大学建筑学院,教授, kongyhart@126.com;2.天津大学建筑学院,硕士研究生;3.天津大学建筑学院,博士研究生
摘要:
徽州合院是特定地域内自然环境和社 会文化在建筑形式上的重要表征。本文针对中 国传统地域建筑文化的当代重构议题,立足于 徽州合院形式的设计探索,从形式美学、空间组 织、场所营造三个方面解析传统徽州合院地域 特征,运用特征归纳、比较分析、案例解读等方 法解读三个当代建筑案例,进而揭示出徽州合 院在形式操作、空间组织、组群构建三个层级 上转译与重构方法,阐释当今地域创作中对徽 州合院形式的传承与变异,探索徽州合院形式 对当代创作的潜能,并探讨建筑实践中传统与当 代、地域与全球的关系。
关键词:  合院形式  徽州民居  传统特征  地域 实践  重构方法
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240313
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(52038007);天津市自 然科学基金青年项目(20JCQNJC01630)
Contemporary reconstruction of traditional Chinese regional architecture: Exploration ofdesign based on the Huizhou courtyard form
KONG Yuhang,CHEN Yi,WANG Anqi
Abstract:
As one of the most basic spatial organisations in traditional Chinese architecture, the courtyard presents different formal characteristics in different regions, and the specific courtyard form is the result of the two-way construction of spatial organisational characteristics and sociocultural ethics in a specific region during the long-term historical evolution, and it is a figurative representation of a specific traditional regional culture. Since the development of modern architecture, the problem of design convergence brought about by the international style has caused the architectural community to explore the issue of regional reconstruction. With the attention paid by the Chinese architectural community to the research and reconstruction process of the traditional regional courtyard form, more and more Chinese architects, while rooted in the traditional regional culture, are looking forward to the development needs of the times and society, and have begun to seek for contemporary universal architectural insights from the wisdom of the region. More and more Chinese architects, while rooted in traditional regional culture and looking ahead to the social development needs of the times, have begun to seek contemporary universal insights from the wisdom of the region, showing individual creative characteristics as well as collective creative consensus. Therefore, the thesis takes the Huizhou courtyard as a sample, and uses diagrammatic analysis as a research method, through deconstructing the characteristics of the traditional courtyard form in Huizhou and analysing the reconstructed cases of contemporary courtyard architecture, to excavate the method of contemporary reconstruction of traditional regional forms and its laws, so as to provide ideas for the research of reconstruction and translation of traditional Chinese courtyard forms in contemporary times. The Huizhou courtyard is an important architectural representation of the natural environment and social culture in a specific region, and the reconstruction level of its courtyard space is not only reflected in its traditional inward-looking, hierarchical and flat formal characteristics, but also in the integration of the reconstruction design with the three levels of elemental reorganisation, organisational mapping, and contextual reproduction. If the reconstruction by unit construction is an imitation of traditional spatial elements beyond formal representations, exploring the optimal variation of forms under the change of functional needs, then the sequence organisation reflects the organisational potential of the traditional Huizhou courtyard space, realising the return of the spontaneous organisation of the traditional courtyard form to the contemporary context, and realising the implicit relationship with the traditional spatial structure. The expression of group is to put the traditional Huizhou courtyard form back into the contemporary natural and social environment, and to use the wisdom of traditional regional construction to shape people’s physical perception of the traditional regional courtyard meaning in the contemporary environment, so as to complete the reproduction and sublimation of the traditional spatial meaning in the contemporary context. From unit construction to sequence organisation to group expression, it forms a hierarchical vein of reconstruction from vocabulary, syntax and semantics in the structure of narrative linguistics.Therefore, as a typical representative of China’s regional architectural culture, the reconstruction of Huizhou courtyard form has an important research value for the inheritance and development of Huizhou and even the whole country’s traditional architectural culture. With the passage of time, the exploration of the Huizhou courtyard form is bound to attract attention with the inheritance and interpretation of modern architectural knowledge system and Chinese regional culture, so as to realise a high degree of return to the symbiosis between human beings and the environment. This paper focuses on the contemporary reconstruction of traditional Chinese regional architectural culture, and is based on the design exploration of the Huizhou courtyard form, analysing the regional characteristics of the traditional Huizhou courtyard from the aspects of formal aesthetics, spatial organisation, and place-making, and interpreting the three contemporary architectural cases by means of summarising the characteristics, comparative analysis, and interpretation of the case studies, thus revealing the methods of translating and reconstructing the Huizhou courtyard at the levels of formal operation, spatial organisation, and group construction, and explaining the present-day methods of translation and reconstruction. It also reveals the methods of translation and reconstruction of Huizhou compound at the three levels of formal operation, spatial organisation, and group construction, explains the inheritance and variation of Huizhou compound form in today’s regional creation, explores the potential of Huizhou compound form for contemporary creation, and discusses the relationship between tradition and contemporary, and between the region and the globe in architectural practice.
Key words:  courtyard form  Huizhou houses  spatial reconstruction  constructive hierarchy  design strategy