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基于生活圈理论的收缩型村镇公共服务设施配置研究 ——以黑龙江省肇源县为例
李世芬1, 李竞秋2, 刘代云3, 樊 浩4
1.( 通讯作者):大连理工大学建筑与艺术学 院,教授,598674153@qq.com;2.大连理工大学建筑与艺术学院,博士研究生;3.大连理工大学建筑与艺术学院,副教授;4.大连理工大学建筑与艺术学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
乡村人口收缩是城镇化进程持续推进 的必然,为满足村镇居民不断提升的需求并避 免人口收缩造成的资源浪费,亟待对村镇公共 服务设施配置体系进行优化与重构。以黑龙江 省肇源县为例,引入生活圈理论探讨收缩型村 镇公共服务设施配置优化方法。首先基于对村 镇收缩类型与强度的分类,结合居民出行意愿 的时距转换调查,将肇源县村镇划分为“县域— 扩展—基本—基础”四级动态半径生活圈。然 后通过筛选与生活圈等级对应的公共服务中心, 并依据相关规范及居民实际需求,确定各级公 共服务中心配置的项目内容和优化建议。
关键词:  收缩型村镇  生活圈  公共服务设施  配置优化  肇源县
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240218
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(52278007);“十三五”国 家重点研发计划(2019YFD1100801)
Research on the allocation of public service facilities in shrinking villages and towns basedon life circle theory: Taking Zhaoyuan County in Heilongjiang Province as an example
LI Shifen,LI Jingqiu,LIU Daiyun,FAN Hao
Abstract:
In recent years, China’s urbanization level has continued to improve. On the one hand, urbanization causes a large number of rural young and middle-aged labor force outflow, causing problems such as idle housing land, lack of facilities for the elderly, inadequate use of educational facilities, and so on. On the other hand, with the rapid development of the social economy, people's demand for quality of life and public services is increasingly enhanced. However, the scale, quantity, and quality of public service facilities in villages and towns are all lower than the urban level. In this context, for shrinking villages and towns in Northeast China, in-depth research on the allocation of public service facilities in villages and towns is needed. This paper chooses the shrinking Zhaoyuan County as an example to introduce the living circle theory, and the living circle was divided from the microscopic perspective of the actual needs of rural residents, and the allocation of public service facilities was coordinated according to the circle level. Previous studies of village and town living circles mainly focused on the allocation of public service facilities, layout and location, and the division of village and town circles. In the study of coping with regional and village shrinkage, there are few practices, and few studies involve the temporal and spatial comparison of the village population. Therefore, on the basis of the introduction of the “living circle” theory, combined with the shrinkage of the village system, population loss, and residents’ demand for public services, the construction of the living circle of public service facilities in shrinking towns and villages is discussed from the perspective of theoretical adaptability, practical feasibility and future adjustment elasticity, which can provide theoretical reference for the sustainable development of urban and rural integration and the equalization of facilities. Drawing on the division method of urban and rural living circles, this study puts forward the technology and method of the division of living circles of shrinking towns and villages in Zhaoyuan County. First, it combines the needs of residents with the shrinking characteristics of towns and villages and classifies the results of the time-interval conversion of residents’ travel intention and the shrinking villages. The contraction types and intensity of 16 towns in Zhaoyuan County were superimposed, and five contraction degrees were divided: expansion type non-contraction, potential type mild contraction, potential type moderate contraction, sustained type mild contraction, and sustained type moderate contraction. After that, the time distance method is used to convert the corresponding time cost into space distance through the villagers’ public service intention. Based on the contraction characteristics of villages and towns in Zhaoyuan County, the circle radius was divided into four dynamic circles of “county circle-extended circle-basic circle- basic circle”. Then, based on the results of the living circle division of villages and towns in Zhaoyuan County, combined with the current situation of population contraction, the population center and the living circle center are superpositioned to select public service centers at all levels, and a four-level public service facility configuration system of county public service center-extended public service center -basic public service center -basic public service center is constructed. According to residents’ needs andrelevant norms and standards, the project contents of the allocation of public service centers within the living circle are determined. The allocation system adjusts the corresponding allocation contents and indicators according to the contraction of villages and towns so as to adapt to the current situation of the contraction of villages and towns, and make the allocation system more precise and reasonable. The research results show that one county public service center should be set up in Zhaoyuan County, 15 extended public service centers should be set up at the township level, 19 basic public service centers, and 46 basic public service centers should be set up in Xinzhan and Gulong Town, respectively, to meet the daily use needs of residents. Considering the different shrinkage status and development potential of each village and town, the allocation standard suitable for the characteristics of each village and town should be proposed differentiated. For example, primary school teaching points in non-shrinking villages correspond to the selection of basic public service centers. Then for the continuously shrinking villages, it is appropriate to lower the standard of facility allocation and intensive construction, and at the same time, health rooms and daycare centers can also be built together, so as to save land and resource utilization while facilitating medical care for the elderly. This study enriches the research content of the living circle at the county scale and provides useful references for the reasonable allocation of public service facilities and the effective improvement of public service levels in shrinking villages and towns.
Key words:  shrinking village and town  life circle  public service facilities  optimal allocation  Zhaoyuan County