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多方协作、多级传导、上下结合 ——成都市城乡社区治理的探索
杨 辰1, 辛 蕾2, 贾姗姗3
1.同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,上海市城 市更新及其空间优化技术重点实验室住房 与人居环境治理分实验中心,副教授、博 士生导师;2.同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,博士研究生;3.( 通讯作者):西北农林科技大学风景园林 艺术学院,助教,shaan361@163.com
摘要:
自2017年以来,成都市面对发展资源 匮乏、顶层设计缺失和上下互动不足三大社区 问题,尝试从“多方协作”“多级传导”“上下结 合”三方面探索超大城市城乡社区治理的新思 路。多方协作方面,成都市设立社区发展治理委 员会,协调各委办局制定解决“人、物、财”瓶颈 的多方协作对策;多级传导方面,通过科学划分 社区发展群,将全市“五大社区”的建设要求和 评价标准层层传导至区(市)县和街道(镇)的 社区治理行动中;上下结合方面,“三位一体”的 社区规划师制度将主管部门及行业专家、设计团 队、民意代表组织在一起,共同参与社区更新项 目的全过程。本文通过梳理和总结成都经验, 以期为中国超大城市的社区治理提供可借鉴的 经验。
关键词:  多方协作  多级传导  上下结合  城乡社区发展规划
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240217
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(52078351);上海市自 然科学基金面上项目(23ZR1468300);国家留学基 金资助(202206265029)
Multi-party collaboration, multi-level transmission, up-and-down integration: Explorationof urban and rural community development planning in Chengdu
YANG Chen,XIN Lei,JIA Shanshan
Abstract:
In order to strengthen the construction of community governance system and respond to the people’s yearning for a better life, the Chengdu Municipal Government has introduced a series of community governance policies since 2012, coordinating the urban and rural communities of the whole city into a unified development planning framework, comprehensively coordinating the development and governance of urban and rural communities, so as to explore the governance path of mega cities. Through investigation and research, three major problems in urban and rural communities in Chengdu have been identified. Human, material, and financial development resources are extremely scarce, community managers have a low level of education, the supporting and service level of community public service facilities is insufficient, and the project funds used for construction are far from sufficient.The top-level design is missing, and some specialized plans are scattered among departments such as planning, civil affairs, and the National Development and Reform Commission, lacking horizontal coordination and unable to provide differentiated guidance for community development. The interaction between the top and bottom is not very sufficient, the government is too responsible for grassroots community affairs, the relationship between the “troika” (neighborhood committees, property management company and owners’ committees are known as the “troika” of the community) of community governance is unclear, the willingness and ability of residents to participate in community affairs are low, and there are not enough respondents to public activities. In order to solve the above three major community problems, Chengdu is exploring governance innovation in three aspects. Firstly, through multi-party collaboration, from the perspective of community resources, integrate talent, space, and funds into the framework of community development planning, and coordinate the utilization of community resources. Talent Team - Selecting key members at the top to establish a community development governance committee, establishing a talent flow mechanism for outstanding members of the two committees to enter the civil service system at the grassroots level, promoting the “trinity” community planner system, and establish a public creative group. Hardware construction - building a three-level “community complex”, with business formats divided into 8 major categories and 116 subcategories, exploring market assisted operation methods. Financial security - exploring three strategies of “open source, cost saving, and improving usage efficiency”. Secondly, through multi-level transmission, explore the transmission mechanism from macro to micro, scientifically classify urban and rural communities, and use principal component+cluster analysis method to divide the entire city’s communities into eight community development groups: “core urban area, central urban area, urban fringe area, new urban area, Linpan area, high-quality agricultural area, comprehensive upgrading area, and nature reserve”. Identify the characteristics of community development groups through 25 indicators that reflect the current status and potential of community development. Develop differentiated action guidelines for grassroots community governance, and construct ten action menus of “jobs-housing, travel, service, leisure, party building,neighborhood, inclusiveness, culture, co-construction, and sustainable development”, transmit the construction requirements and evaluation standards of the city’s “five major communities” to the community governance actions of districts (cities), counties and streets (towns). Finally, in terms of top and bottom integration, introduce resident participation at different stages of community governance policy formulation, program design, and implementation evaluation, explore the institutional innovation of the “trinity” community planner. The mentor team is mainly responsible for the connection between community development direction and macro strategy, and regularly provides professional training for community planners and creative groups. The planner is mainly responsible for solving the problem of “planning into residential areas”, and is responsible for updating the design of community public spaces and implementing projects. Members of the “public creative group” conduct regular visits to collect residents’ needs and inform “planners” to help them choose update projects and develop update strategies. By implementing a “trinity” participation system, we can bridge the gap between top-level design and grassroots governance. The community development issues in megacities go far beyond the content of material space planning. It is necessary to further explore the complex policy, economic, and cultural background of urban and rural society behind spatial renewal, use top-level design to guide the action logic of departmental collaboration and grassroots governance, and explore methods and implementation paths for residents to participate in community planning. This article proposes “Chengdu Experience and Innovation Exploration”, hoping to provide valuable experience for community governance in China’s megacities.
Key words:  multi-party collaboration  multi-level transmission  up-and-down integration  chengdu  urban and rural community development planning