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老城区社区生活圈测度及公共服务设施优化研究 ——以宜宾市为例
周 波1, 廖元培2, 周玥姮2, 宋桂君3, 冯 田4
1.四川大学建筑与环境学院,教授,博士生 导师;2.四川大学建筑与环境学院,硕士研究生;3.宜宾市自然资源和规划局三江新区分局, 工程师;4.( 通讯作者):四川大学建筑与环境学院, 助理研究员,fengtian@scu.edu.cn
摘要:
在我国城镇化的下半场,以人为本、存 量规划和集约发展成为当下城市的主旋律,作 为承载城市记忆的老城区社区生活圈亟待更新 优化。以宜宾市老城组团为例,采用连锁网络模 型和基于真实路网的设施可达性分析等方法,结 合10大类公服设施POI数据、当地居民对设施的 重要性评价数据,对研究区域进行了10分钟社 区生活圈的测度探索,并在测度结果的基础上, 以生活圈为视角提出了相应公服设施的优化及 择址建议。研究结果表明:第一,宜宾老城共可 划定出4个10分钟社区生活圈,平均用地规模较 小于平原、省会、特大型城市;第二,4个生活圈 整体都存在公园广场、社会福利、科教文化这3 类设施数量较为欠缺及覆盖范围较小的共性问 题;第三,各生活圈生活便利度差异明显,发展不均衡。未来宜侧重优化过渡区、边缘生活圈欠缺设施;第四,基于设施覆盖率及居民可达程度 考虑,每个生活圈宜提供中心度前三的地块中心点作为10分钟层级设施的推荐设置点。
关键词:  10分钟社区生活圈  生活圈测度:连锁网络模型  公共服务设施配置
DOI:
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基金项目:四川大学—宜宾市人民政府市校战略合作专项资金 项目(2020CDYB-24)
Study on measurement of community life circle and optimization of public servicefacilities in old city: Taking Yibin City as an example
ZHOU Bo,Liao Yuanpei,Zhou Yueheng,Song Guijun,Feng Tian
Abstract:
In the second half of China’s urbanization, people-oriented, stock planning, and intensive development have become the main themes of the city nowadays. The community life circle in the old city, which carries the memory of the city, is in urgent need of renewal and optimization. This study takes the Yibin old city cluster as an example. Using methods such as the Interlocking Network Model and the facilities accessibility analysis based on the real road network, combined with the POI data of 10 major types of public service facilities and data on the importance evaluation of the facilities by residents, it explores the measurement of 10-minute community life circle in the study area. Based on the measurement results, the optimization and site selection of corresponding public service facilities are proposed from the perspective of the life circle. The paper first explains the reasons why Yibin old city cluster is chosen as the study area and why the 10-minute community life circle is taken as the measurement scale of the study. According to the previous literature research experience, the grid of 250 m*250 m is selected as the basic unit for dividing the life circle. The data sources for this study mainly include the vector data of buildings and roads captured by Python on the Baidu and AMAP map platform, and the questionnaire data surveyed and collated in the field investigation, which can be used to judge the impact of various facilities on residents. Based on the Interlocking Network Model and the current domestic 10-minute life circle scale control documents, the above data are used to determine the closeness of the relationship between the grids in the study area and to delineate the scope of the community life circle. As a result, Yibin old city cluster is divided into 4 life circles: central life circle, sub-central life circle, transition area life circle, and edge life circle, with the accuracy of the division results verified. According to the current situation of each life circle, suggestions on the optimization and location selection of corresponding public service facilities are put forward, and the living convenience evaluation of each life circle is carried out to represent the construction level of various public service facilities in terms of quantity, type, and accessibility. After that, the method of calculating the centrality index is used to clarify the importance degree of each block in the life circle, and the optimization suggestion is put forward for the location selection of the 10-minute life circle level public service facilities. The results show that: 1) Yibin old city cluster can be divided into 4 10-minute community life circles, with an average land scale smaller than that of the plain, provincial capital, and super large city. 2) The 4 life circles as a whole have a common problem of insufficient quantity and limited coverage of facilities such as parks, squares, social welfare, science, education, and culture facilities. 3) There are significant differences in the convenience of life among different life circles, and the development is uneven. It is advisable to focus on optimizing the facilities that are lacking in transitional areas and peripheral life circles in the future. 4) Based on the coverage of facilities andthe accessibility of residents, each life circle should provide the top three centrality points as recommended setting points for 10-minute level facilities. Besides, the results indicate that the Interlocking Network Model has good performance at the meso and micro scales in exploring land correlations and guiding the measurement of community life circles. The core of the model is to quantify the correlation degree of actors within the network. In terms of life circle measurement, it is shown to quantify the correlation of different groups to the use frequency, preference, accessibility, and other elements of the facilities in different blocks, and then further identify the group of land parcels with relatively close connections. This is in line with the nature of the relationship between life circles, which is mutually independent but nested.
Key words:  10-minute community life circle  life circle measurement: Interlocking Network Model  public service facilities configuration