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基于POI和AOI数据的贵阳市生活圈便捷性测度
谢庆哲1, 赵翠薇2
1.贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,广 州欧特斯坦工程咨询有限公司,硕士;2.( 通讯作者):贵州师范大学地理与环境 科学学院,教授,1840537749@qq.com
摘要:
公共服务设施的空间布局对城市的宜 居性产生重要影响。15分钟生活圈构建是“以 人为本”城市规划理念的具体实践。基于贵阳 市公共服务设施互联网开放数据,运用机会累 积法,对贵阳市住宅小区5分钟、10分钟和15分 钟生活圈便捷性进行测度,研究发现:可达性 视角,优质住宅小区占比低,5分钟生活圈的可 达性优于10分钟、15分钟生活圈;可达设施多样 性,5分钟生活圈的达标率最低;贵阳市生活圈 达标住宅占比仅为5.49%,部分种类日常设施点 分布具有区域特性。贵阳市提高宜居性,应加强 生活圈便捷性建设。
关键词:  生活圈  公共服务设施  便捷性  POI  AOI
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240219
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(42361028)
Convenience measurement of Guiyang City living circle based on POI and AOI data
XIE Qingzhe,ZHAO Cuiwei
Abstract:
With the rapid growth of population in Guiyang, the contradiction between inadequate supply of public service facilities and increasing demand has become prominent. Traffic congestion continues to worsen, and the undulating terrain of the mountainous city makes long-distance walking challenging. Optimizing the allocation of public service facilities and improving urban livability are crucial issues in Guiyang’s urban planning. Based on the identification and related research of community life circle functions, an evaluation index system for the convenience of 5, 10 and 15-minute life circles in Guiyang has been constructed. For the 5-minute life circle, facilities such as kindergartens, daily shopping, catering facilities, and parks/squares are selected, covering 4 major categories and 8 sub-categories. For the 10-minute life circle, facilities including transportation hubs, sports facilities, primary schools, and beverage/ snack vendors are chosen, encompassing 4 major categories and 10 sub-categories. For the 15-minute life circle, facilities like entertainment and leisure, other shopping options, life services, medical facilities, cultural tourism attractions, and shopping malls/clothing stores are considered, spanning 6 major categories and 31 sub-categories. Diversity is mainly measured based on the major categories. Using residents’ homes as the center point, the research team obtained 52 008 POI (Point of Interest) data and 2 587 AOI (Area of Interest) data from six municipal districts in Guiyang through the Gaode Map API. To ensure scientific rigor, the team randomly followed an elderly person or child for 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes without their knowledge, maintaining the same speed and path. Research in a particular road segment ended when at least 3 or more cases were observed, and 80% of the cases had a walking distance variation within 5%. After successfully following 27 cases, outliers were excluded, and the average results were rounded off to determine the farthest walking distances of 300 m, 580 m, and 860 m for the 5-minute, 10-minute, and 15-minute life circles, respectively. This study evaluates the accessibility and diversity of public service facilities. Accessibility of daily facilities is assessed using the cumulative opportunities method, which measures the total number of opportunities reachable from a specific location within a given time or cost. In the samelevel community life circle, the residential area with the highest number of accessible facilities is assigned a full score. Based on this number, 75%, 50%, and 25% are set as cut-off points for excellent, passing, poor, and needing improvement categories, respectively. Diversity in accessible daily life facilities refers to the number of different types of public service facilities (POI major categories) reachable from home within a certain level of the community life circle. In accessibility measurements, the compliance rates for the 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15-minute life circles were 46.04%, 5.76%, and 5.49%, respectively. Overall, the 5-minute life circle performed best among the three levels, benefiting from the commercialization of ground-floor spaces in residential areas. However, due to limitations in early planning and haphazard construction in some residential areas, the accessibility of the 5-minute life circle in the central urban area was lower than in other regions. Additionally, the high land prices and limited available land in the central urban area made it difficult to develop supporting commercial facilities in later stages. In diversity measurements, the compliance rates for the 5, 10, and 15-minute life circles were 29.38%, 69.00%, and 82.22%, respectively. Generally, the more concentrated the residential areas, the better the diversity of public service facilities. Kindergartens and parks/squares emerged as themain limiting factors. Past planning, prioritizing efficiency and economic benefits, had insufficient emphasis on residents’ leisure needs. Furthermore, some specialty commercial centers often overlooked local residents’ demands for other public service facilities. The overall convenience of life circles in Guiyang reached only 5.49%, indicating a significant regional disparity in the distribution of public service facilities. The low convenience of life circles, coupled with the challenging terrain of the mountainous city and limited economic resources, constrained the increase in the density of subway lines. As a result, residents relied heavily on public transportation, exacerbating traffic congestion and affecting the city’s livability. It’s found that: 1) from an accessibility perspective, high-quality residential areas accounted for a low proportion, and the accessibility of the 5-minute life circle was better than that of the 10 and 15-minute life circles; 2) in terms of facility diversity, the compliance rate of the 5-minute life circle was the lowest; 3) only 5.49% of residential areas in Guiyang met the standards for life circle convenience, and the distribution of certain types of daily facilities exhibited regional characteristics. To enhance livability in Guiyang, it is essential to strengthen the construction of convenient life circles.
Key words:  life circle  public facility  convenience  POI  AOI