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城市更新视角下纽约历史街区保护更新模式研究 ——以格林威治村历史街区为例
左 力1, 曾星星2
1.( 通讯作者):重庆大学建筑城规学院, 山地城镇建设与新技术教育部重点实验 室,副教授,zuoli@cqu.edu.cn;2.重庆大学建筑城规学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
随着我国城市进入城镇化“下半场”, 城市发展的范式产生转变,历史街区价值逐渐 显现,历史街区的保护与更新成为城市更新进程 中的重要类型。本文聚焦纽约历史街区保护更 新模式的研究,以纽约格林威治村历史街区为 研究案例,探讨了20世纪60年代纽约市《城市 地标保护法》出台后,纽约市应对不同尺度、不 同类型历史街区保护更新项目的模式机制。研究 以历史街区的保护更新项目为对象,从历史街区 遗产价值与更新模式相互关联的维度,梳理历 史街区的发展背景和空间演化过程,解析了历史 街区的层积性的历史价值、活态化的文化遗产和 多样性的美学特征,详细阐释了应对历史文化传 承和城市更新发展双重目标导向下,纽约历史街 区从建筑单体到街区,不同尺度、不同类型项目 的保护更新模式机制。
关键词:  城市更新  历史街区  保护更新  格林威治村  模式机制
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240213
分类号:
基金项目:2020年度国家留学基金委访问学者项目(202006 055007)
Research on historic districts preservation and renewal modes from the perspective ofurban renewal: A case study on Greenwich Village historic district in New York
ZUO Li,ZENG Xingxing
Abstract:
As China’s urbanization enters a new stage, the paradigm of urban development is changing, and the value of historic districts is gradually emerging. The preservation and renewal of historic districts have become a significant type of urban renewal process. This paper focuses on the preservation and renewal modes of the historic districts in New York from the perspective of urban renewal, using the Greenwich Village historic district as a case study. It explores the mode mechanisms adopted by the authority of New York City in response to preservation and renewal projects for historical districts of various scales and types after the promulgation of the “New York City Landmarks Law” in the 1960s. The research takes the preservation and renewal projects of historical districts as the research object, and from the perspective of the interconnection between the cultural heritage and renewal modes of historical districts, it sorts out the development background and spatial evolution process of historical districts, analyzes the historical value, dynamic cultural heritage, and aesthetic features of the diversity of historical districts. In response to the dual objectives of historical cultural inheritance and urban renewal development, the research elaborates in detail on the protection and renovation mechanism of various scales and types of projects in historic districts in New York, from individual buildings to entire neighborhoods. In terms of urban renewal and historic preservation, cultural heritage and urban sustainable development are the core demands of New York’s historic district renewal model. New York has integrated the core content of The Landmarks Law into the city’s charter through the legislative procedure of revising the city charter, making it the top legal basis for urban management. Under the framework of the city charter, New York has established a series of institutional mechanisms, including public policy support and social public participation mechanisms, to ensure the sustainability and fairness of the entire process from application to approval to implementation of renewal projects. To support the wide participation of market forces in the preservation and renewal of historic districts, New York has formulated historic building tax incentives, historic building insurance programs, and other policies targeting different types of renewal projects. At the same time, the New York Landmarks Preservation Foundation provides special funds to assist the New York Landmark Preservation Commission in promoting public awareness of the protection of historic districts through education and publicity. Information disclosure, public engagement, and project hearings are important mechanisms for protecting heritage and ensuring fairness in New York’s historic district preservation. Detailed information on each stage of the project is publicly available on government websites for public review, and the Landmark Preservation Commission, composed of officials, experts, and community residents, participates in the review and supervision of each stage of the protection and renewal project. The research focuses on the preservation and renewal projects in the Greenwich historical district, which was officially designated as a historical district by the New York City LandmarkPreservation Commission, excavates the heritage value of historical districts in terms of historical value, cultural heritage, and aesthetic characteristics, sorts out the scale hierarchy, functional requirements, and zoning limited renewal needs, and from the dimensions of the correlation between heritage value and renewal demand value, sorts out the development background and spatial evolution process of historical districts, and analyzes the layered historical value of historical districts living cultural heritage and diverse aesthetic characteristics. The research organizes and sorts out the renewal projects in Greenwich Village and identifies three typical renewal modes in historical neighborhoods, namely adaptive renewal mode, rehabilitation renewal mode, and holistic renewal mode, with corresponding typical cases selected for each mode: Rubin Hall Project, No. 14-16 Apartment Building Project on Fifth Avenue, and Saint Vincent Campus Redevelopment Project, with a summary of the renewal characteristics and mechanisms of the three modes derived from the development background, heritage value, renewal methods, and renewal strategies of each case. The preservation and renewal of historical districts in New York City focus on the dual objectives of cultural heritage and urban sustainable development, under the framework of The Landmarks Law and Urban Zoning Law and established a long-term mechanism for preservation and renewal by combining urban planning and urban control systems, which can meet the complex requirements of projects in terms of various scales and types from individual buildings to blocks. The legislative framework created by New York for the preservation and renewal of historic districts, including a long-term management mechanism and a variety of preservation and renewal models customized to local conditions, serves as a valuable reference for addressing current preservation and renewal challenges encountered by historic districts in China.
Key words:  urban renewal  historic districts  preservation and renewal  Greenwich Village  mode mechanism