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站城融合·空间整合 ——我国“站城综合体”的概念解析与研究进展
戴一正1, 戚广平2, 张晨阳1, 樊鹏涛3, 郭雪飞4
1.东南大学建筑学院,博士研究生;2.( 通讯作者):同济大学建筑与城市规划学 院,副教授,fastudio@vip.163.com;3.同济大学建筑设计研究院(集团)有限公 司,高级工程师;4.同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,博士研究生
摘要:
我国站城融合发展刚刚起步,站城综合 体作为铁路客站与城市空间整合的实现方式,成 为建筑设计领域重要的议题。站城综合体在不 同城市发展背景下的建设实施,形成了若干实践 模式,对站城综合体的概念和脉络进行系统解 析,厘清其建设共识、现状问题和发展方向,有助 于系统地建构站城综合体的研究框架,并应对 站城融合发展中的现实问题。以站城综合体为综 述对象,从概念解析、建设特点、问题审视和主 要议题四个方面对站城综合体的相关研究进行 梳理归纳。首先明确站城融合发展是我国站城综 合体建设的实际推动因素,辨析概念的内核与拓 展,对站城综合体进行界定;然后分析国内外站 城综合体建设的特点,并对我国站城综合体的问 题现状进行总结;进而划分出国内站城综合体的 发展阶段,在此基础上归纳出当前我国站城综合体研究的四个主要议题。研究提出我国站城综合体的相关研究应完善站城综合体在多层面的体系 化建构,强化站城综合体在城市开发方面的研究,推进站城综合体评价体系前置介入设计,注重学 科交叉融合实现研究方法的创新,并通过多体系交叉和跨尺度协同展开进一步的研究,对当下我国 站城融合发展具有现实意义。
关键词:  文献综述  站城综合体  站城融合  概念解析  研究进展
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240212
分类号:
基金项目:中国国家铁路集团有限公司重点课题(N2 0 21 G037,2020F022)
Concept analysis and research progress of “station-city urban complex” in China
DAI Yizheng,QI Guangping,ZHANG Chenyang,FAN Pengtao,GUO Xuefei
Abstract:
With the rapid construction of the national “eight vertical and eight horizontal” highspeed railway network, railway passenger stations and their supporting facilities are also being constructed synchronously in cities along the line. As of the end of 2022, China has built 1 841 railway passenger stations, including 1 188 high-speed railway passenger stations and 653 ordinary speed passenger stations. It is expected that by 2035, the number of railway passenger stations under construction will reach 1 277, including 984 high-speed railway passenger stations, achieving the goal of 1-hour commuting within the urban agglomeration, 2-hour arrival within the urban group, and 3-hour smooth travel between neighboring cities. How to rely on the spillover effect generated by the construction of high-speed railway to promote the integrated development of stations and cities has become a major and urgent demand in the national social and economic life. As a way to integrate railway passenger stations with urban space, the station-city urban complex has become an important topic in the field of architectural design. The construction and implementation of the station-city urban complex under the background of different urban development have formed several practical models. In addition, there has been a discussion among scholars on the connotation and extension of the station-city urban complex. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically analyze the concept and context of the station-city urban complex, clarify its construction consensus, current problems, and development direction. Taking the station-city urban complex as the review object, this paper summarizes the relevant research on the station-city urban complex from four aspects: conceptual analysis, construction characteristics, problem review, and main issues. Firstly, it is clear that the actual driving factor for the construction of the station-city urban complex in China comes from the integrated development of stations and cities, rather than the bus-oriented development. Although both gather urban resources, there are significant differences in development goals, service objects, and influence scopes, which are jointly determined by the current stage of urban development and the railway construction strategy in China. The station-city urban complex can be defined as an urban complex formed under the background of the integrated development of stations and cities, which is led by the railway passenger transport hub. It meets the basic needs of passenger flow loading and unloading and transfer of trunk railways, collects various urban transport transfer services, integrates urban elements through a three-dimensional transfer network, and forms an urban architectural integration phenomenon within a range of 800-1 000 meters around the station. Then, it analyzes the characteristics of the construction of the station-city urban complex at home and abroad. The construction of the station-city urban complex in European countries mainly achieves the reasonable construction of urban spatial relations and the creation of places through the renewal and expansion of the original station space; the construction of the station-city urbancomplex in Japan mainly guides the aggregation and vertical distribution of urban functional elements through the three-dimensional development of the railway station space, shapes better passenger attraction capabilities and brand images, and forms a symbol of the urban economic engine and a window for internal and external promotion; the construction of the station-city urban complex in China intends to vigorously expand transportation-derived functions and urban related industries on the basis of ensuring efficient transfer, promote the development and construction around the railway station, and improve the environmental quality around the railway station. At the same time, it summarizes the problem review of the station-city urban complex in China. On the one hand, it is the process problem of guiding development and construction brought by differences in national conditions and road conditions; on the other hand, it is the spatial design problem of the station-city urban complex brought by the complex spatial system. Furthermore, it divides the development stages of the domestic station-city urban complex, including the initial stage of urbanization and station-city coordination, the accelerated stage of urbanization and multinetwork transfer, and the stable stage of urbanization and station-city integration. Based on this, it summarizes the four main topics of current research on the station-city urban complex in China, namely, the evolution of origin and reality, classification standards and type classification, performance evaluation framework combining data and simulation, and design mode of “multiple elements + integrated layout”. The research proposes that relevant research on the station-city urban complex in China should improve the systematic construction of the station-city urban complex at multiple levels, strengthen research on the station-city urban complex in urban development, advance the intervention of the evaluation system of the station-city urban complex into design, focus on interdisciplinary integration to achieve innovative research methods, and further research through multi-system intersections and cross-scale collaboration, which has practical significance for the integrated development of stations and cities in China at present.
Key words:  literature review  station-city urban complex  station-city integration  concept analysis  research progress