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城市设计之道:以变应变,依法导控
金广君1
哈尔滨工业大学(深圳)建筑学院,荣休 教授,jin6045@hit.edu.cn
摘要:
由英文Urban Design一词翻译过来的 “城市设计”,和“古已有之”的城市设计有不 同的含义。本文通过对北美城市设计追本溯源, 阐述了北美城市设计以变应变的本质特征,认 为城市设计存在的底层逻辑是应对环境复杂多 变的行动,因此城市设计成果应该是一个开放 的实施框架,由设计咨询和实施导控两部分组 成。进而阐述了城市设计依法导控的关键问题, 包括导控的动力、过程、标准与教育。最后,论 文针对中国特色城市设计的路径选择提出了个 人建议。
关键词:  应对变化  容积率奖励  制度建设  城 市设计师  中国特色城市设计
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240211
分类号:
基金项目:
The way of urban design: Responding changes by dynamic measures
JIN Guangjun
Abstract:
The “urban design in Chinese” translated by the English word from US urban design academic paper, has a different meaning from previous “urban design” in the world. By tracing the North American urban design source since 1956, the paper expounds the essential characteristics of responding change urban design. In view to that, the underlying logic of urban design existence is responding action of city environment changes, so the outcome of urban design should be an open implementation framework. It’s composed of two parts: design creative consulting, and implementation strategy, making up for the insufficiency of the old urban planning management system such as zoning and its ordinance, and playing a unique role in the process of urban construction management. The paper discusses the key issues of urban design guidance and control under the zoning ordinance and by-laws. Firstly, it is the different scales of urban design project. Urban design management should give full play to the characteristics of dynamic guidance and control under the control of the overall city comprehensive planning objectives and the basic structure of management, so as to adapt to the new changes of urban environment and people's living needs. The second is the power of guidance and control. By explaining the basic floor area ratio and the maximum floor area ratio, it is pointed out that the data range of the design floor area ratio determines the guidance and control ability of urban design management, and demonstrates the role of the incentive zoning strategies and technologies during the process of the construction project “soft landing” . The third is process of guidance and control, which discusses guidance and control process of urban design, relying on zoning systems from beginning to end, which should be a closed-loop legal procedure. Fourth, it is the standard of urban design. Thinking urban design standard is to ensure the guiding results of fair, justice and high quality, the paper comprehensively summarizes the data and information about urban design standards, and summarizes that urban design standards generally includes four aspects: blocks and streets, street wall and public space, street furniture and greenings, signs and material. In addition, according to the construction needs, some cities have specially compiled environmental sustainable development standards, barrier-free design standards, complete street and community design standards, street park-let design standards, and the like. Fifth, it is the urban design education. It is pointed out that with the enhancement of city awareness and civic awareness, more and more people are enthusiastic to participate urban design decision-making process, and the community design workshops. So, urban design education should be oriented to all people, especially the citizens living in the city. The education program can be divided into direct professional designer program and indirect designer training program. The urban design curriculum level is also divided into four knowledge modules, forming a four-in-one urban design education system. Finally, it puts forward the road map of urban design with Chinese characteristics. It is believed that China has accumulated a lot of experiences in detailed control planning and independently formulated urban design, which is a valuable resource for the innovation of urban design system. From past 70 years’ experiences of North American urban design practice, we have learned much more lessons in evolution of urban design discipline. By understanding its urban design intention, concept and principle will help us to explore the development of urban design discipline and practice suitable for China conditions and with Chinese characteristics. The paper suggests that, as Chinese cities entering the era of renewal, the urban constructionis facing more and more challenges and opportunities. It should attach importance to basic issues of urban design and take high-quality environmental construction as our goal, learn from previous experience and lessons, so that the discipline and practice of urban design with Chinese characteristics can develop and move towards rationally.
Key words:  responding change  FAR incentive  institutional improvement  urban designer  urban design with Chinese characteristics