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后疫情时代城市社区居住满意度评价体系的重构
赵 静1, 贺 勇2, 陈紫微3, 陈钰凡1
1.浙江大学建筑工程学院,博士研究生;2.( 通讯作者):浙江大学建筑工程学院,教 授,heyongwl@zju.edu.cn;3.浙大城市学院国土空间规划学院,助理研 究员
摘要:
城市社区居住满意度是评价与提升社 区居住环境的重要标准之一。针对后疫情时代 居住满意度评价体系与社区环境之间适配性不 足的问题,研究梳理了后疫情时代相关文献研 究与空间规划实践,从中提取新的影响因素作为 “疫情补丁”,在整合原有居住满意度评价体系 的基础上,重构具有“精度”与“尺度”的后疫 情时代居住满意度评价体系。研究结果表明, 后疫情时代的居住满意度评价体系可以从“社 区—组团—单元—家宅”四个空间层级进行重 构和落实,并提出空间维度支撑、社会要素调节 与整体动态更新的优化策略。本研究结果为人 民满意的城市社区的空间韧性提升和规划建设 提供理论支撑与实践经验。
关键词:  居住满意度  评价体系  后疫情时代  重构  优化策略
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240208
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(52278044)
Reconfiguration of evaluation system for residential satisfaction in the post-COVID-19 era
ZHAO Jing,HE Yong,CHEN Ziwei,CHEN Yufan
Abstract:
The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic at the beginning of 2020 has seriously affected people’s daily life and health, which also triggered off a deeper research and thinking concerning our urban living space, especially the built environment of communities. China’s successful experience in combating the pandemic has shown that a series of measures taken with the community as the basic unit of prevention and control are effective, but it has also exposed the deficiencies in resource allocation, spatial planning and governance of urban community space. In addition, for individual residents, the highly spatial community lockdown measures have many problems such as unmet demand for living services, insufficient outdoor and social activities, damage to physical and mental health, and a general decline in satisfaction, which has led to a new demand for pandemic prevention and daily health. Although the World Health Organization announced in May 2023 that COVID-19 no longer constitutes a “public health emergency of international concern”, the years of coexistence with the virus have quietly changed people’s needs and awareness of their living environment and health. Therefore, in the post-COVID-19 era where danger and opportunity coexist and the fight against the epidemic is normalized, how to achieve a healthy, comfortable and resilient living environment through spatial planning has become an important topic of concern in academia. As a subjective feeling of the gap between residents’ expectations and perceptions, residential satisfaction is an effective indicator for evaluating the quality of the living environment and measuring urban planning and construction. However, the traditional residential satisfaction evaluation system is not fully adapted to the current urban communities, and it is difficult to effectively assess and guide the improvement of the environmental quality of urban communities. The reasons for this can be summarized as three: firstly, the spatiality of the evaluation dimensions is insufficient, and the analysis results cannot be directly converted into specific spatial optimization strategies; secondly, the adaptability of the evaluation subject is insufficient, and the change of the evaluation subject’s demand will affect the evaluation of satisfaction; thirdly, the lack of timeliness of the evaluation indexes, and the blind copying of the previous evaluation system may not be consistent with the actual problem, and it is difficult to reflect the environmental renewal and development itself. Aiming at the new requirements of community living environment and the lack of adaptability between the satisfaction evaluation system and the community environment, the goal of this study is to realize the effective updating of satisfaction in the post-COVID-19 era, and intend to outline the new framework of the residential satisfaction evaluation system. The study has sorted out the related literature and spatial planning practices, extracted new influencing factors as “epidemic patches” to revise the residential satisfaction evaluation system. Based on the original evaluation system of residential satisfaction, the problem demand and spatial hierarchy are integrated into the original evaluation system, so as to reconfigure the evaluation system of residential satisfaction in the post-COVID-19 era with “accuracy” and “scale”. The results of the study indicate that the residential satisfaction evaluation system in the post-COVID-19 era can be reconstructed and implemented at four spatial levels, namely community, cluster, unit and interior space. Specifically, communities should improve the configuration of public service facilities and enhance the effectiveness of community autonomy. Composite shared spaces are necessary in residential clusters, promoting neighborhood relationships. The transportation core in the unit building used tobe the overlooked spaces, it should optimize the ventilation system and increase resource supply capacity. The interior space of house emphasizes a complex and flexible layout design, as well as the clever use of specific spaces. Based on the reconfiguration of residential satisfaction evaluation system, the study concluded optimization strategies of spatial dimension support, social factor adjustment, and overall dynamic update. Through the supportive reconstruction of the spatial scales of residential satisfaction, the evaluation dimensions are improved, so as to efficiently raise the satisfaction. Emphasizing the regulation of social factors in residential satisfaction responds to the needs of residents’ social life in the post epidemic era, and helps to form the sense of community and a better governance pattern. The correlation between residents and the living environment promotes the dynamic updating of the residential satisfaction system, which leads to a more accurate environmental improvement program. The research suggests that the application of multi-scale residential satisfaction evaluation indicators and the implementation of community resilience optimization strategies are keys to effectively improving spatial resilience of urban communities in the post-COVID-19 era. The results of this study can serve as a guide for improving the spatial resilience and planning construction of urban communities and “people’s cities”.
Key words:  residential satisfaction  evaluation system  post-COVID-19 era  reconfiguration  optimization strategy