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寒地城市老幼群体不同季节住区户外活动特征及其影响 因素研究
冷 红1, 栾佳艺2, 袁 青3
1.哈尔滨工业大学建筑与设计学院,自然资 源部寒地国土空间规划与生态保护修复重 点实验室,教授,博士生导师;2.哈尔滨工业大学建筑与设计学院,自然资 源部寒地国土空间规划与生态保护修复重 点实验室,博士研究生;3.( 通讯作者):哈尔滨工业大学建筑与设计 学院,自然资源部寒地国土空间规划与生 态保护修复重点实验室,教授,博士生导 师,hityq@126.com
摘要:
住区是承载老幼群体户外活动的主要 场所,寒地城市特殊气候条件下的季节变化对老 幼群体的活动特征影响显著,本文根据其影响 因素提出满足老幼群体全季节活动需求的共享 型户外活动空间营造策略。利用实地调研与问卷 结合的方式对哈尔滨市6个样本住区452组老幼 群体进行调查,研究不同季节老幼群体住区户 外活动的时间与空间分布特征,并通过多元回归 分析的方法分别提取不同季节下老幼群体活动 频率、活动时长和活动类型的影响因素。基于研 究结果,从优化目标、优化机制、环境营造三方 面提出寒地住区户外活动空间的优化策略。
关键词:  寒地城市  老幼群体  季节  户外活动 特征  住区优化策略
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240207
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(52378051)
Research on the characteristics and influencing factors of residential outdoor activities indifferent seasons for the elderly and children living in winter cities
LENG Hong,LUAN Jiayi,YUAN Qing
Abstract:
As China’s population ages, the number of the elderly and children has been steadily increasing in recent years. Against this backdrop, grandparenting has become a common phenomenon in the country. In winter cities, where climate conditions vary significantly with the seasons, the elderly and children populations face heightened environmental health risks. The changing seasons in these winter cities notably impact the activity patterns of these groups. Residential areas, as the primary venues for outdoor activities for the elderly and children, can effectively meet their needs and adapt to seasonal changes through the optimization of physical spaces and the socio-cultural environment. Therefore, this paper is oriented to improve the health level of the elderly and children groups in winter cities, with the goal of improving their level of allseason activities, extending the duration of activities, and enriching the types of activities. Also, this paper focuses on the intergenerational activity needs of the elderly and children groups in the outdoor activity space of the settlements in winter cities, and investigates the characteristics of the intergenerational interaction behaviors of the elderly and children groups in different seasons, and explores the relationship between them and environmental elements of the outdoor activity space of the settlements by means of field research and data analysis. The findings are used to adjust resource allocation and improve environmental quality, proposing strategies for optimizing these outdoor spaces to guide improvements in winter cities. Firstly, the study begins with a combined approach of field surveys and questionnaires, investigating 452 elderly and children pairs across six sample residential areas in Harbin. The core of this research lies in the “activity characteristics of the elderly and children in residential outdoor spaces”. “Activity characteristics in residential outdoor spaces” under the context is driven by internal factors such as personal characteristics of these groups and external factors like seasonal changes in cold urban climates and the residential environment. The questionnaire covers potential influencing factors, including individual characteristics, residential environment planning features, and social aspects of the residential environment, as well as activity characteristics in residential outdoor spaces across different seasons, such as activity frequency, duration, and types. Secondly, a comprehensive analysis of the questionnaire results reveals the characteristics of the elderly and children’s outdoor activities in residential areas across different seasons, including the demographics of participants, types of activities, range of trip, timing, and spatial distribution. To further explore the characteristics of these activities (frequency, duration, and types) and their relationship with the outdoor space environment across different seasons. The study employs multiple regression analysis to identify influencing factors for each activity characteristic, providing a basis for subsequent residential optimization. The results of the study show that the frequency of outdoor activities of the elderly and children is closely related to the seasonal changes in winter cities, and that the frequency of outdoor activities in the cold season is most significantly affected by the accessibility of the site, while the frequency of outdoor activities in the other seasons issignificantly affected by the characteristics of the society. In terms of activity duration, the duration of outdoor activities of the old and children groups in all seasons is mainly affected by the environmental characteristics of the residential area, and there are differences in the types of influencing factors and the degree of influence in different seasons. In terms of activity types, there are significant differences in age and preferences for venues among the three different interaction types. On the basis of the results of the above research, the causes of the corresponding influencing factors are reasonably analyzed, so as to provide a basis for the subsequent optimization of settlements. Finally, based on these findings, the study proposes strategies for optimizing outdoor activity spaces in cold urban residential areas, focusing on setting optimization goals, mechanisms, and creating an environment. The construction of all-season friendly shared settlements for the elderly and the young is taken as the optimization goal, and a mechanism for the joint construction of soft and hard support systems and a mechanism for the collaboration of multiple actors are used to jointly promote the high-quality development of the settlements. At the same time, strategies are proposed for the creation of physical space and social and humanistic environment in the settlements. Specific strategies for creating spatial environments in settlements include the creation of safe and comfortable travel conditions, activity areas and facilities that take into account seasonal use, enhanced weather protection to extend the duration of outdoor activities throughout the season, and safe and comfortable outdoor spaces that are inclusive of a wide range of activity types for children and elder persons with the expectation that they will be able to effectively meet the needs of older and younger age groups in their use of the space and to cope with seasonal variations. Through the above optimization strategies, humanistic care for vulnerable groups has also been added.
Key words:  winter cities  the elderly and children  season  characteristics of outdoor activities  residential optimization strategies