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生态学理论在建成环境评价体系中的融合与应用 ——BREEAM英国策略性生态框架研究
朱文莉1, 朱 玲2
1.沈阳建筑大学建筑与规划学院,讲师;2.( 通讯作者):天津大学建筑学院,教授, zhuling2008@126.com
摘要:
当前,生态学与人居环境科学之间的 交叉融合成为建成环境可持续发展的重要研究 方向。由于国家级的建成环境评价标准对城市 建设活动具有引领性和导向性作用,因此如何 将生态学理论融入标准中成为研究内容之一。 本文介绍了BREEAM英国策略性生态框架的 制定思路、总体目标和各项任务,以及在其指导 下的基础设施评价、社区评价和建筑评价中关 于场地生态影响评价部分的条款设置与实施重 点。期望通过本研究能对如何将生态影响评价 系统性、层级式、可实践化地融入国家级的建成 环境评价标准起到一定的借鉴作用。
关键词:  建成环境评价  生态影响评价  生物 多样性保护  生境营造  亲生命设计
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240209
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(52078307)
Integration and application of ecological theory in built environmental assessment system:Research on BREEAM UK strategic ecology framework
ZHU Wenli,ZHU Ling
Abstract:
At present, the cross-amalgamation between ecology and habitat science has become an important research orientation in the sustainable development of the built environment. As nationallevel built environment evaluation standards play a leading and guiding role in urban construction activities, how to integrate ecological theories at the corresponding scale into the national-level built environment evaluation system represented by the Green Building Evaluation Standard has become the research content. At present, the research and practice of site ecological impact assessment in China’s national built environment assessment standards are in the stage of exploration and qualitative analysis. There is a lack of systematic expression and provision of ecological theory closely related to site planning and design, and there is no targeted clause setting and quantitative evaluation from the life cycle perspective including decision-making stage, planning stage, design stage, construction stage and maintenance stage. Therefore, this paper studied the BREEAM UK Strategic Ecology Framework and its application in the BREEAM evaluation system, and analyzed from the perspective of the implementation emphasis of ecological theory in the ecological impact assessment of different scales sites and the provision setting of each life cycle stage, in order to provide a useful reference for the ecological part of the site provisions in the national built environment assessment represented by the Green Building Evaluation Standard in China. This paper introduced the general formulation ideas, overall objectives and tasks of BREEAM UK Strategic Ecology Framework, as well as the clauses setting and the implementation focuses in the infrastructure evaluation, community evaluation and building evaluation which under its guidance. The general formulation idea of BREEAM UK Strategic Ecological Framework is to clarify the key ecological characteristics and reasonable ecological objectives of the evaluated sites and ecological related areas, to formulate ecological design strategies related to biodiversity, habitat protection and sustainable issues, and to enhance the overall ecological value of the whole life cycle of the built environment project in combination with periodic ecological management and maintenance. The above clauses setting included infrastructure ecological impact assessment oriented with biodiversity conservation, community ecological impact assessment oriented with participatory local habitat construction and architectural ecological impact assessment oriented with pro-life design. The above implementation focuses included the division of ecological status survey paths at different risk levels, the setting of ecological goals combined with sustainable issues, the formulation of ecological measures following the ecological mitigation level, and the quantitative measurement of the overall ecological value. Through the above research contents, this study aims to play a certain reference role in how to integrate ecological impact assessment with national built environment assessment standards systematically, hierarchically and practically. Through the above analysis, the following suggestions were put forward for the site ecological impact assessment in national-level built environment evaluation system represented by the Green Building Evaluation Standard: 1) Expanding the scope of ecological theory. The evaluation contents should be related to the frontier ecological theory, which could reflect the current best practices andfuture development direction in the field of ecology. 2) Constructing the overall framework of the evaluation contents. Establish an overall framework with unified evaluation logic, implementation path and measurement method, and select quantitative indicators to represent the overall change of ecological value before and after construction to quantify the evaluation results. 3) Setting the evaluation clauses based on the whole life cycle stages. Integrate the evaluation clauses with the key contents of ecological fields such as biodiversity conservation, habitat construction, and pro-life design, taking into account the relevance and applicability. 4) The evaluation process should be dominated by ecologists. Following the advice of qualified ecologists, who coordinate stakeholders such as planners, designers, construction teams, owners and managers for information transfer and collaboration. 5) Promoting the formulation of national ecological policy. Through a series of processes such as theoretical research, inclusion criteria, and promotion in conjunction with evaluation projects, key ecological policies such as ecosystem services, natural capital, and biodiversity compensation should be formulated in order to promote the transformation of ecological achievements into national policies. This paper expected to play a certain reference role for the ecological development of national-level built environment evaluation system represented by the Green Building Evaluation Standard in China to realize the systematic and deep integration between the frontier ecological theory and specific implementation methods. Then, it should promote the ecological construction of China’s built environment and the formulation of relevant ecological policies through the guiding role of built environment assessment to construction practice.
Key words:  built environment evaluation  ecological impact assessment  biodiversity protection  habitat creation  Biophilia design