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社区嵌入视角下日本老龄化城市养老服务与规划的经验 及启示
罗 鹏1, 于 霜2, 雷凤琴3, 杨一帆4,5
1.西南交通大学外国语学院,讲师;2.西南交通大学公共管理学院,硕士研究生;3.四川外国语大学日语学院,硕士研究生;4.( 通讯作者):西南交通大学公共管理学院, 教授,博士生导师;5.西南交通大学国际老龄 科学研究院,教授,yangswjtu@126.com
摘要:
当前,我国正面临着严峻的人口老龄化 挑战,建设全龄社区和老年友好城市已成为迫 切目标。本研究以日本三个老龄化城市的空间 规划为案例,分析社区养老服务设施的规划布 局和地域综合照护体系的构建。研究表明,日本 社区养老服务设施规划以现有空间资源为规划 对象,以建设友好社区环境为重要抓手,以公 共场所和居住领域为空间治理单元,从医疗、照 护、预防、居住和生活支援五个方面共同进行社 区空间适老化改造。既考虑了规划的整体性和 全面性,又兼顾了多元治理的互动性。对我国社 区嵌入式养老服务设施空间规划的启示在于: 要加强政策支持与协同治理,包括根据区域发 展情况、社区面积、老年人占比等因素制定具体 细致的政策,并引入社会力量,构建多元治理体系;同时建立社区养老服务评估体系,以共生发展为目标,合理配置空间资源;还应建立资源保障 体系和运营维护团队,做到资源调度有序。
关键词:  嵌入式  地域综合照护体系  空间规划  老龄化城市  多元治理
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240202
分类号:
基金项目:国家社会科学基金教育学重大项目(VKA220009); 国家社科基金一般项目(18BZZ044)
Experience and inspiration of elderly care services and planning in Japanese aging citiesfrom the perspective of community embedding
LUO Peng,YU Shuang,LEI Fengqin,YANG Yifan
Abstract:
China is currently facing the severe challenge of population aging, and the construction of allage communities and age-friendly cities has become an urgent goal. This paper takes the spatial planning of three aging cities in Japan as an example, analyzing the planning and layout of community service facilities for the elderly and the construction of a regional comprehensive care system. The study shows that the planning of community facilities for the elderly in Japan takes the existing spatial resources as the planning object, with the construction of a friendly community environment as the critical starting point. Public places and residential areas are used as the spatial management units, and the aging transformation of community space is carried out jointly across five aspects: medical treatment, care, prevention, residence, and life support. This approach does not only consider the integrity and comprehensiveness of the planning, but also takes into account the interaction of multi-stakeholder governance. Introducing the concept of pluralistic governance, community governance is a fundamental component of social governance. The purpose of pluralistic governance is to provide higher-quality and more accessible public services, not the marginalization of the government. In the planning of community spaces within elderly care facilities, it should emphasize the cooperation between key stakeholders, adhere to the principle of consultation and discussion, widely solicit the opinions of the public, listen to the demands of the community, and base our efforts on the needs of the elderly. Among them, the government should play a guiding and coordinating role in governance, social organizations should provide services and support, and residents should participate in decision-making and management, forming a “trinity” of government, social organizations, and residents. Through this multi-stakeholder cooperation, it can reduce friction between parties, ensure the effectiveness of service delivery, achieve effective alignment between supply and demand, and leverage the resource advantages of each stakeholder to provide higher-quality products and services for the elderly. Three-dimensional urban planning and design involves a systematic and holistic approach, considering the overall context, and emphasizing the coordination between infrastructure layout, the environment, industry, and residents. The goal is to achieve symbiotic development and create a livable city for all ages. In the planning process, it should not only focus on the development of new areas, but also the transformation of existing cities, highlighting the unique characteristics of each urban environment. In the process of integrating elderly care facilities, it should make full use of existing buildings and vacant sites, optimize the layout of the facilities, provide more specialized spaces and areasfor the elderly to engage in recreational activities and exercises. Additionally, based on the size of the community space, it should employ a rational and decentralized layout to ensure that the services are more accessible and closer to the daily lives of the elderly. Providing personalized and warm services is key to flexibly meeting the diverse needs of the elderly. This approach avoids the drawbacks of large-scale concentration, making it easier for the elderly to access the services they require. It reduces the cost of distance, improves the accessibility of services, enables localized elderly care, and allows the elderly to spend the least amount of time while enjoying the most comprehensive services. Within the constraints of resources and the environment, China’s urbanization efforts must adopt a compact and intensive approach, concentrating urban development within a relatively small area. By connecting transportation and information networks, a compact arrangement of medical, welfare, commercial, and other functions along public transport routes can enhance the utilization of public facilities. A “network” structure, integrating transportation, information, communication, and energy, is essential for building a sustainable public transport system. Moreover, compact and intensive urbanization necessitates the flexible use of land with indeterminate ownership and the repurposing of vacant buildings. This involves the transformation, reconfiguration, and optimization of existing infrastructure to maximize resource efficiency and minimize the environmental impact of urban expansion. Such measures can, to some extent, improve the accessibility and integration of services for the elderly, enhance their quality of life, foster the development of age-friendly cities, and contribute to sustainable development and environmental protection. The insights for the spatial planning of community-embedded elderly service facilities in China include: strengthening policy support and collaborative governance by crafting specific and detailed policies based on regional development, community size, the proportion of the elderly population, and other factors, as well as engaging social forces to establish a multi-tiered governance system. Additionally, there should be an establishment of an evaluation system for community elderly services to strategically allocate spatial resources with the aim of symbiotic development. It is also imperative to create a resource assurance system and an operational and maintenance team to ensure orderly resource management.
Key words:  embedding  regional comprehensive care system  space planning  aging cities  multi-stakeholder governance