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住区建成环境对老年人生活品质影响的实证研究 ——以大连市既有住区为例
于文婷1, 朴正浩2, 张玲玲3, 王洪羿4, 周 博5
1.苏州大学金螳螂建筑学院,讲师;2.苏州苏大建筑规划设计有限责任公司,建 筑师;3.( 通讯作者):苏州大学金螳螂建筑学院, 副教授,zhanglingling119@126.com;4.苏州大学金螳螂建筑学院,副教授;5.大连理工大学建筑与艺术学院,教授
摘要:
伴随着生活圈的不断收缩,住区逐渐成 为了老年人日常生活的主要场所,然而,既有住区 的建成环境却往往不能满足老年人生活需求, 影响老年人的生活品质。研究以大连市既有住区 建成环境为对象,基于扎根理论采用拍照、测 绘、半开放式访谈的方法,结合文献梳理,分析 了住区建成环境对老年人生活品质的影响。研究 认为住区建成环境现状问题主要体现于无障碍 设计缺失、规划缺失以及管理缺失。这些问题均 导致了老年人生活品质下降,且主要体现于无法 满足营养需求、安全感需求、卫生需求以及社交 需求。因此,为了提高老年人的生活品质,在进行 建成环境改造时,应该充分考虑导致老年人生 活品质下降背后的动因,并以需求为导向进行统 筹优化。研究认为老年人生活品质是一项综合的指标,通过建成环境的优化能够在一定程度上对其进行提升,但只有建成环境与社会环境协同作 用,才能更有效的提升老年人的生活品质。
关键词:  生活品质;老年人  既有住区;建成环境;需求导向
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240203
分类号:
基金项目:江苏省卓越博士后计划项目(2022ZB582);江苏 省高校哲学社会科学研究项目(2022SJYB1452); 国家自然科学基金面上项目(51978119)
An empirical study on the impact of residential built environment on the quality of life ofolder people: A case study of existing residential areas in Dalian
YU Wenting,PIAO Zhenghao,ZHANG Lingling,WANG Hongyi,ZHOU Bo
Abstract:
As individuals age, due to the decline of physical functions and the weakening of mobility, the living circle of older people is shrinking, and residential areas have gradually become the main place for older people’s daily lives. However, in existing residential areas, due to the early construction and low design standards, there is little age-friendly environmental planning and design in residential areas. The built environment often cannot meet the living needs of older people, affecting their normal life, and reducing their quality of life. This study focuses on the built environment of residential areas in Dalian and its impact on the quality of life of older people. To conduct this analysis, it utilized grounded theory, including photography mapping and semi-open interviews, combined with a literature review. Additionally, it applied Doyal and Gough’s theory of human needs to understand and evaluate the impact of the built environment on older individuals’ wellbeing. The study discovered that the current issues with the built environment in residential areas mainly stem from the lack of barrier-free design in public spaces, inadequate planning of activity venues and roads for older people, and the insufficient management of public spaces by relevant community departments. These problems have resulted in a decline in the quality of life for older people and are primarily reflected in their inability to meet nutritional, security, hygiene, and social needs. Among these problems, the fear of falling worries about unknown environments, and shrinking areas are the primary reasons for older people’s reduced sense of security. The lack of accessibility and visibility and, the unsuitable physical environment of social activity venues in residential areas, affect the social needs of older people. The lack of convenient channels for purchasing food ingredients and related services hinders the elderly’s nutritional needs. Also, the lack of adequate lighting and ventilation in residences, the lack of bathing facilities, and insufficient accessibility of public bathrooms reduce the hygiene conditions of older people. Therefore, to improve the quality of life of older people, the factors behind the decline in the quality of life of older people should be fully considered when renovating the built environment. And demandoriented overall optimization should be carried out. Among the specific renovation plans, for existing problems in residential areas, direct renovation without any cost count is the most intuitive solution. However, due to constraints such as cost and manpower, this solution is not feasible. Therefore, based on existing resources, making full use of manpower and space within the community to improve the quality of life of older people is a practical problem faced by residential areas currently. For example, improving the convenience of nutrition accessibility for older people by transforming existing idle facilities into community canteens or shared restaurants. Building social spaces that are convenient for older people in community spaces with high visibility and accessibility can provide older people with the possibility to participate in social activities. Providing convenientsanitary facilities in existing or unused spaces in residential areas, increasing the illumination of older people’s residences and public areas, and increasing the indoor temperature can improve the hygiene status of older people and meet their hygiene needs. Moreover, relevant departments can attract social capital through incentives and subsidies to establish community management service systems to provide convenient services for older people in their daily lives. Encourage the establishment of mutual aid networks among older people to enhance community cohesion and sense of community. Bottom-up socialization and mutual assistance are important ways to improve the quality of life and the happiness of older people. It is only through the collaborative efforts of the built environment and social environment that we can effectively enhance the living standards of seniors. This study presents a fresh outlook on optimizing the aging suitability of residential areas.
Key words:  quality of life  older people  existing residential areas  built environment  demand orientation