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适应于老年人心理健康的住区环境优化:概念模型与研 究框架
岳亚飞1, 杨东峰2, 徐 丹3, 陈 石1, 李沛颖4
1.沈阳建筑大学建筑与规划学院,副教授;2.( 通讯作者):大连理工大学建筑与艺术学 院,教授,yangdongfeng@dlut.edu.cn;3.大连理工大学土木建筑设计研究院有限公 司,工程师;4.沈阳建筑大学建筑与规划学院,讲师
摘要:
城市老年人的心理健康状态与其生活 的住区环境密切相关,通过对住区环境的优化 以支持老年人心理健康促进,有助于老年友好 城市和健康城市的建设。然而既有研究在理论 模型、指标选取和分析方法层面存在一定局限, 制约了适应于老年人心理健康的规划调整与干 预策略的提出。本研究依托于可行能力、自我 效能和社会生态模型视角的范式创新,构建适 应于老年人心理健康的住区环境优化的概念模 型,基于文献综述和概念模型提出研究框架: 选取影响老年人心理健康的住区建成和自然环 境指标体系;利用多阶层模型、非线性模型和结 构方程模型等方法甄别老年人心理健康的住区 环境影响要素、临界阈值和作用机制。研究希冀 为老年人心理健康友好型的环境规划和设计提供重点和方向,推动健康理念下的住区发展新模式,为老龄化健康住区的实践认知和设计导控 提供理论支撑和研究范式。
关键词:  住区环境  心理健康  老年人  理论模型  指标体系
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240201
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(52078095);辽宁省教 育厅基本科研项目面上项目(JYTMS20231570);辽宁 省教育厅基本科研项目青年项目(JYTQN2023382)
Residential environmental optimization adapted to the mental health of older adults: Aconceptual model and research framework
YUE Yafei,YANG Dongfeng,XU Dan,CHEN Shi,LI Peiying
Abstract:
The mental health status of urban older adults is closely related to the residential environment in which they live. The optimization of the residential environment to support the promotion of older adults’ mental health contributes to the construction of age-friendly and healthy cities. In the previous literature on the association between the residential environment and the mental health of older adults, the influence factors of the residential environment were multidimensional, and the influence also showed heterogeneity in terms of culture and geography. Meanwhile, the association of the residential environment and the mental health of older adults also had a high degree of complexity, such as a non-linear association. The limitations of existing studies in terms of theoretical modeling, selection of indicators and analytical methods make it hard to identify the key factors, internal mechanisms and pathways through which the residential environment affects the mental health of older adults, thus restricting the proposal of planning adjustments and intervention strategies adapted to the mental health of older adults. In terms of theoretical modeling, taking the limitations of existing studies as an entry point, it constructed a conceptual model and research framework of residential environment and mental health of older adults. It attempted to integrate related theoretical systems and multi-path conceptual models, and to extract the mediating variables and pathways that reflect spatial fairness and psychosocial nature, including Capabilities, Self-efficacy and Environmental Perceptions. In terms of indicator selection, an indicator system adapted to the mental health of older adults was proposed from the built and natural environment dimensions. In the built environment dimension, based on the urban image theory and the findings of the previous literature, the built environment factors were divided into node, path and district levels, in order to incorporate the psychological factors of the residential environment as much as possible. In the natural environment dimension, the natural environment was divided into green space, blue space and blue-green integrated space, which involves both quantitative and qualitative dimensions by combining the attention recovery theory and stress relief theory. In terms of analytical methods, a multilevel model was used to distinguish the role of environmental characteristics and individual attributes on mental health. A nonlinear model was used to identify critical thresholds and effective intervals of the residential environment. A structura楬琠楥潱湵?慴湩摯?搠敭獯楤来湬?杷畡楳搠慵湳捥敤?潴景?档敬慡汲瑩桦祹?慴杨楥渠杰?ths of influence, and qualitative comparative analysis was used to determine the optimal combination of strategies, and so on. As a result, the key factors, internal mechanisms and pathways of the residential environment are identified. Combined with quantitative measurement and health performance, the main types of measures and paths to achieve the adjustment and optimization of the mental health-friendly residential environment for older adults would be clarified. In terms of optimization measures, measures were proposed combining results of thetheoretical model and research framework, with current norms in the planning field. Firstly, guidelines for optimizing the residential environment to enhance the mental health of older adults were identified. Secondly, the main types of optimization measures and planning strategies for specific impact pathways were identified. Meanwhile, in the process of planning and regulating the implementation, it is also necessary to determine the different levels of optimization, such as safeguarding and reforming, controlling and adjusting, and promoting optimization, taking into account the degree of difficulty of the actual optimization measures and the health performance. For future research, wearable devices and VR can be utilized to more accurately measure the environmental exposure of older adults. Biosensors, clinical diagnosis and follow-up questioning can be used to accurately measure various indicators of psychological functioning and mental health of older adults. The use of dynamic strategies to study real-time individual behavior and psychological interaction with the residential environment will be an important direction for future research. It’s expected that it will provide a focus and direction for the planning and design of mental health-friendly environments for older adults, promote a new model of residential development under the concept of health, and provide theoretical support and a research paradigm for the practical cogn
Key words:  residential environment  mental health  older adults  theoretical model  indicator system