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侗族传统聚落气候适应性研究
张 颀1, 赖筱书2, 黄 琼3, 张安晓4
1.天津大学建筑学院,教授;2.天津大学建筑学院,硕士研究生;3.( 通讯作者):天津大学建筑学院,副教 授,qhuang@tju.edu.cn;4.天津大学建筑学院,讲师
摘要:
侗族传统聚落在有限的资源与技术条 件下,运用独特的生态自然观,获得宜人居址。 本文以山地隘口、河谷平坝两种不同类型侗族 传统聚落为研究对象,通过实测与数值模拟等 方法,归纳其适应地域气候的规律及经验。研 究表明,山地隘口聚落与河谷平坝聚落选址及 空间布局的气候适应性各有特点。山地隘口聚 落以山地地形为气候适应前提,通过地势高差 调节微气候环境;河谷平坝聚落以“背山面水” 选址作为获得良好聚落方位的前提,通过合理 布局建筑朝向及街巷空间适应当地气候环境。
关键词:  侗族传统聚落  山水环境  气候适应 性  聚落空间  海拔高度  街巷空间
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230120
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0700201)
Research on Climate Adaptability of Traditional Settlements of the Dong Ethnic Group
ZHANG Qi,LAI Xiaoshu,HUANG Qiong,ZHANG Anxiao
Abstract:
The process of modernization has witnessed the development of urban and rural areas being gradually homogenized, while the gradual weakening of traditional culture and regional culture is becoming more and more prominent. Followed the development of urban and rural areas, a large number of new and rebuilt residential and rural residence have also caused a series of settlement microclimate environmental problems. Under the limited resources and technical conditions, the traditional settlements of the Dong ethnic group can draw on advantages and avoid disadvantages, and choose sites for residence, which contains many excellent traditional elements. Meanwhile, the traditional settlements of the the Dong ethnic group have strong regional characteristics, which are distinct from the villages and ancient towns in other regions in terms of cultural characteristics, settlement characteristics and climate adaptation. Therefore, exploring the climate adaptability of traditional settlement of the Dong ethnic group will play a positive role in the future construction of new countryside. Ranged within the settlements of the Dong ethnic group at the neighboring region of Hunan Province, Guangxi Province and Guizhou Province, this thesis selects two types of traditional settlements of the Dong ethnic group in the mountain pass settlements and river valley flatland settlements as the research object. Combining field physical measurement and simulation method, starting from the perspectives of settlement location, spatial layout, residential and construction, a comparative study on the climate adaptability is conducted from the macro to medium level. By virtue of field measurement, the status quo of the settlement and microclimate is considered for multipoint data measured in different space in the same settlement and similar space of the same settlement: five consecutive sunny days of summer with the same weather condition are selected for experiment. In the experiment, multi-function temperature and humidity self-recorder, multi-function anemometer, hotline anemometer are adopted for data collection and summary in summer wind heat environment of the selected spaces of the research objects. In addition, on the basis of the measured experiment, further analysis is carried out through simulation. According to the drone results, the altitude information is extracted. Combined with field survey, a 3D model is drawn. With the help of PHOENICS as a summer wind heat environment simulation platform, the same meteorological parameters are adopted for the analog simulation in the same time of different settlements. Based on the relative relationship of the settlement microclimate, combined with the measured and simulation results, a further comparative analysis is implemented on each settlement. The research focuses on the summer thermal engineering environment of settlement, establishes a comparative study on the climate adaptability of different types of settlement from macroscopic to mediate level, and summarizes its climate adaptability law and experience. The research shows that people of the Dong ethnic group combine the natural environment to seek advantages and avoid disadvantages, and choose sites. The settlement location, spatial layout and construction of residential settlements complement each other, adapt to the regional climate, and create a livable environment in a coordinated way. Among them, the mountain pass settlement relying on mountain terrain can obtain good wind environment to adapt to the local climate. The terrain height difference can help regulate the settlement microclimate environment. That is to say, the settlement is built along the mountain terrain in a ladder space layout, using height difference between dwellings, which effectively improves the space wind environment effect. Meanwhile, the street space increases with the terrain height, enhancing its space ventilation efficiency. River valley flatland settlements takes “leaningon mountain and facing to water” as the premise of good settlement orientation, supplemented by “surround” village and “pass” village drainage to regulate the settlement microclimate. Through the reasonable layout of building orientation (most of the residential to NW-SE towards), street space that is conducive to meeting the summer wind is form, so as to adapt to the local climate environment. Besides, through reasonable control of building height and street scale, the external space environment with good ventilation and thermal comfort is achieved. Considering that traditional settlements of the Dong ethnic group show different advantages and limitations in climate adaptability, they should be viewed dialectically. In the process of constructing future new countryside and improving living environment, it is necessary to combine their respective advantages, flexibly use scientific connotations and laws, fully respect the natural environment, and take the real social resource conditions into consideration. In creating comforTab. livable settlement environment, we can inherit excellent traditional elements of the Dong ethnic group, and realize the dual sustainable development of traditional culture and green living.
Key words:  Traditional Settlement of the Dong Ethnic Group  Landscape Environment  Climate Adaptability  Settlement Space  Altitude  Lane Space