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基于文化与自然融合的传统村落景观韧性评估与提升 ——以陕南传统村落为例
李 稷1, 张 沛2, 张中华3, 刘 赫4
1.西安建筑科技大学建筑学院,陕西省新 型城镇化和人居环境研究院,助理教授;2.( 通讯作者):西安建筑科技大学建筑学院,教 授,博士生导师,tianxingjiansmx@126.com;3.西安建筑科技大学建筑学院,教授,博 士生导师;4.西安建筑科技大学建筑学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
在我国快速城镇化与现代化进程中,传 统村落遭受着诸多不确定性因素干扰,加之“重 文化、轻自然”的保护思想较为普遍,导致传统 景观难以维持平衡状态而出现破碎化、异化与 衰败等问题。本文基于文化与自然融合理念,系 统解析传统村落景观韧性内涵与机理,并构建景 观韧性评估模型,以陕南地区的12个传统村落作 为样本进行实证分析。研究结果表明:第一,陕南 传统村落样本景观韧性综合得分平均为55.282, 处于景观韧性一般水平,最高为青木川村,凤镇 街村、营梁村与云镇村得分均高于60,处于韧 性较强水平,得分最低为西坝村处于韧性较弱 水平;第二,指标准则层中文化景观韧性得分最 高,是影响陕南传统村落景观韧性水平的主导 因素,依次是生态环境韧性与社会网络韧性;第 三,一级指标中陕南传统村落样本得分情况差异 较大,主要受到自然环境、旅游开发、人口流失 与移民搬迁政策等因素影响。最后,基于景观韧性评价结果与文化与自然融合理念,从增强抵御干 扰力、提升适应恢复力、优化学习发展力等入手,提出传统村落景观韧性分类提升策略。
关键词:  传统村落  景观韧性评估  文化与自然融合  陕南
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230119
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51978552)
Evaluation and Improvement of Traditional Village Landscape Resilience Based on theIntegration of Culture and Nature: A Cases Study on Southern Shaanxi Province
LI Ji,ZHANG Pei,ZHANG Zhonghua,LIU He
Abstract:
In the process of rapid urbanization and modernization in China, traditional villages have been disturbed by many uncertain factors. In addition, the idea of “valuing culture and neglecting nature” is relatively common, which leads to the problems of fragmentation, alienation and decay of traditional landscapes that are difficult to maintain a balanced state. Nowadays the integration of culture and nature has become a new direction for the management and research of world cultural heritage, and it has had the idea of “theory that man is an integral part of nature” and “theory about everything on earth being of the same body” since ancient times in China, emphasizing that human and nature are subject and object, integrated and organic, while culture is the product of human civilization. It can be seen that the integration of culture and nature is a process, and the subjectivity of the two should be fully respected. They should not be controlled by the mainstream of the times or the discourse of power, nor should they pursue the results one- sidedly and carry out mechanical addition, leading to “combine rather than integration”. Based on the synergy theory, the integration of culture and nature can be understood as that in a specific environment, the cultural system and natural system work together on people, accumulate a large amount of local knowledge through practice and embed it in social networks. The change of social network will shape the cultural landscape and coordinate the ecological environment, and thus promoting the renewal of local knowledge and forming a dynamically balanced “culture-nature” complex system with characteristics of stability, diversity, adaptability and regionality. At the same time, following the basic logic of “function determines form”, from the perspective of landscape functional resilience, this paper believes that traditional village landscape resilience refers to the ability of traditional village landscape system to achieve dynamic balance and achieve sustainable development through self-adaptation, repair and improvement after being disturbed by uncertain factors from culture, economy, environment and society in the process of evolution. For this reason, it constructs an evaluation model of traditional villages’ landscape resilience, and uses the analytic hierarchy process(AHP) and Delphi method to conduct an empirical analysis of landscape resilience evaluation with 12 traditional villages in southern Shaanxi as samples. The results show that: 1) the average comprehensive score of landscape resilience of the samples is 55.282, which is at the general level, with the highest score of Qingmuchuan Village, Fengzhenjie Village, Yingliang Village and Yunzhen Village all higher than 60, which is at the strong level, and the lowest score of Xiba Village is at the weak level; 2) the cultural landscape resilience score is the highest in the indicator criteria layer, which is the leading factor affecting the landscape resilience level, followed by ecological environment resilience and social network resilience; 3) among the first-level indicators, the scores of traditional villages in southern Shaanxi Province vary greatly, which are mainly affected by natural environment, tourism development, population loss and resettlement policies. Accrodingto the evaluation results of landscape resilience, the samples can be divided into three categories. More than two items of cultural landscape, ecological environment and social network resilience of type I villages are far lower than the average value, and the overall landscape resilience is at a general or lower level, such as Miaowan Village, Gaoshan Village, etc; the single-dimensional resilience level of type II villages is much higher than the average value, while the other dimensions are much lower than or about the average value. The overall landscape resilience level is at the average or better level. For example, the cultural landscape resilience of Fengzhenjie Village is high, but the natural environment and social network resilience is not high; more than two of the cultural landscape, ecological environment and social network resilience of type III villages are far higher than the average level, and the overall landscape resilience is at the average or better level, such as Changling Village. Finally, taking the integration of culture and nature as the core, this paper puts forward the classification and improvement strategy of traditional village landscape resilience, including adopting the regional collaborative protection mode of traditional village landscape to enhance the resistance to interference, constructing the landscape protection system of “culture-nature” integration to improve the resilience, and focusing on the mining, protection and inheritance of local knowledge of landscape to optimize learning and development.
Key words:  Traditional Village  Landscape Resilience Assessment  Integration of Culture and Nature  Southern Shaanxi Province