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宁夏海原县海城镇地震应急避难场所优化策略研究
杜亚男1, 马冬梅2, 杨盟盛3
1.宁夏大学土木与水利工程学院,硕士研 究生;2.( 通讯作者):宁夏大学土木与水利工程 学院,教授,415906066@qq.com;3.厦门大学建筑与土木工程学院,博士研 究生
摘要:
地震应急避难场所是在地震发生时为 灾民提供避难和临时生活的安全场所,是灾后 重建及灾后救援工作的基础。文章从韧性城镇 角度出发,运用空间句法理论及方法分析宁夏海 原县海城镇地震应急避难场所的安全性和可达 性,并通过ArcGIS软件分析其容纳性和“平灾 结合”性,揭示了宁夏海原县海城镇地震应急避 难场所存在的问题,提出构建多元避难场所、利 用公共开敞空间、提高灾民避难速度及打造“平 灾结合”模式的四个优化策略,以期对小城镇 地震应急避难场所建设提供借鉴。
关键词:  地震应急避难场所  韧性城市  空间句 法  城镇
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230111
分类号:
基金项目:宁夏重点研发计划项目(2018BEB04012)
The Optimization of Earthquake Emergency Shelter in Haicheng Town of Haiyuan Countyof Ningxia
MA Dongmei,DU Yanan,YANG Mengsheng
Abstract:
Earthquake emergency shelters are safe places that provide refuge and temporary living for victims when an earthquake occurs, and are the basis for post-disaster reconstruction and post- disaster rescue work. The earthquakes suffered by urban areas in my country are characterized by high frequency, high intensity and hypocenters shallower. The diverse natural environment, backward economic conditions, and poor seismic performance of buildings in western China lead to large losses caused by earthquakes. Among them, the 8.5-magnitude earthquake in Haiyuan in 1920 killed 234 000 people and injured 300 000 people. Its scope shocked the world and was called the “global earthquake”. Therefore, this paper selects Haicheng Town, Haiyuan County as the research area, for two purposes, one is to arouse the residents’ awareness of disaster prevention, and the other is to take cities and towns as the research object to promote the research on urban emergency shelters. This paper takes Haicheng Township, Haiyuan County as the research area, from the perspective of resilient towns, using space syntax theory and methods to analyze the safety and accessibility of earthquake emergency shelters in Haicheng Township, Haiyuan County, and uses ArcGIS to analyze its accommodation and “combination of disaster relief”. First of all, according to the concept of space syntax model based on segmentation, this study applies space syntax model to divide large-scale space into small-scale space, extracts the corresponding basic morphological features and their combination relationships, and then obtains cognition of large-scale space. In this paper, the indicators of space syntax analysis mainly include: intelligibility, depth value, global integration and local integration. From the analysis of the intelligibility value of the space syntax, the distribution of the existing parks and green spaces in Haicheng Town is relatively scattered and the degree of intelligibility is low, resulting in a low level of spatial safety or psychological safety when residents evacuate. From the global integration degree and local integration degree of space syntax, the accessibility of roads in Haicheng Town is weak, and it is easy to cause road congestion after the earthquake. From the analysis of the depth value of space syntax, the accessibility around Haicheng Park is relatively good, and the surrounding residents can easily reach the designated place when the evacuation is needed. The road conditions of Nanyuan Park and Cultural and Sports Park need to be optimized. Secondly, according to the national standard Emergency Refuge Sites for Earthquakes: Sites and Supporting Facilities, the per capita refuge area requirements, compared with the area of the existing emergency refuge sites in Haicheng Town, it is concluded that only 28% of the population of Haicheng Town can be accommodated after the earthquake. Finally, starting from the concept of “disaster calming”, through the on-the-spot investigation of existing emergency shelters, it’s found that there is a lack of emergency shelter infrastructure in existing emergency shelters, covering a small number of residential areas and insufficient storage space for materials, etc. It is easy to cause the low utilization rate of emergency shelters. Based on the results of the above analysis, the following recommendations are made to improve the emergency shelters in the town of Haicheng. 1) It should carry out the construction of multi- shelter to enhance the resilience of urban disaster prevention, select the existing parks, schools, and public buildings, use ArcGIS to analyze the buffer zone of dangerous places in Haicheng Town,and select the emergency shelter alternatives within the safe range to ensure the safety of residents. 2) It should utilize public open space to expand urban disaster reduction resilience, analyze the use area of emergency shelter alternatives, and screen out alternative evacuation places with capacity that meets the specifications according to the Design Specifications for Emergency Refugees to ensure the sheltering capacity of disaster victims. 3) It should improve the evacuation speed of disaster victims and improve the resilience of urban disaster relief, widen evacuation roads, increase the number of entrances and exits, clear refuge passages, and improve the accessibility of emergency shelters. 4) It should create a “combination of disaster relief” model, which is beneficial to the robust ability of urban evacuation, add guidance signs for shelters, popularize common sense of emergency shelters, optimize the infrastructure construction of emergency shelters, form a normalized management model, and improve the availability of shelters. This paper analyzes the characteristics of road safety and accessibility in Haicheng Town through the four indicators of intelligibility, depth value, global integration and local integration of space syntax, and adopts a variety of site combination modes to increase the number of earthquake emergency shelters and expand the capacity of shelters, in order to plan the Earthquake emergency shelters with safety, accommodation, accessibility and “combination of disaster relief” provide optimization ideas for the planning of urban earthquake emergency shelters. In future research, the impact of urban road network density, road width, population distribution density, housing construction quality and earthquake damage level on the planning of emergency shelters will be further considered to ensure more effective shelter for residents.
Key words:  Earthquake Emergency Shelter  Toughness City  Space Syntax  Town