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西南山区农村冬季取暖现状及热舒适研究 ——以贵州西北部为例
张正飞1, 肖益民2, 任治立1
1.重庆大学土木工程学院,硕士研究生;2.( 通讯作者):重庆大学土木工程学院, 教授,xiaoyimin1974@126.com
摘要:
西南山区有着“一山有四季,十里不同 天”的气候特点。地处西南山区贵州高原上的威 宁彝族回族苗族自治县,气候较为典型。为详细 了解该气候区农村居民取暖状况,分别对采用 烧炭、烧柴和用电取暖的三户典型农宅的室内外 环境参数进行了测试,同时采用问卷调查的方式 收集了71名居民的热舒适投票。测试结果表明: 烧炭、烧柴和用电取暖时,室内平均温度分别为 12.9 ℃、10.4 ℃、6.7 ℃;CO 2 浓度平均值分别为 423 ppm、266 ppm、271 ppm;CO浓度平均值分 别为16.37 ppm、1.77 ppm、0.27 ppm,烧炭取暖 时应特别注意通风。通过拟合计算,得出实测和 预测热中性温度分别为13.9 ℃、11.5 ℃、7.6 ℃ 和17.6 ℃、14.3 ℃、8.8 ℃;人体80%可接受的温 度下限分别为12.7 ℃、9.9 ℃、7.1 ℃;烧炭取暖 和烧柴取暖时的人体期望温度分别为14.7 ℃、 13.6 ℃。调研分析结果可作为西南山区农村建筑 节能和热环境设计的参考依据。
关键词:  西南山区  贵州西北部  农村住宅  取暖现状  热舒适
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230112
分类号:
基金项目:
Study on Heating Status and Thermal Comfort in Rural Areas of Southwest Mountainous Areain Winter: Take Northwest Guizhou as An Example
ZHANG Zhenfei,XIAO Yimin,REN Zhili
Abstract:
With the proposal of carbon peak and carbon neutral goals and the continuous promotion of rural revitalization strategy, the issue of rural energy and livelihood has received more and more attention. Southwest mountainous areas have the climate characteristic of “one mountain has four seasons, ten miles have different days”. The climate of Weining Yi Hui Miao Autonomous County, which is located on the Guizhou plateau in the southwest mountainous region, is typical and belongs to a cool summer and cold winter area in terms of thermal engineering zoning, with a small annual temperature difference, a large daily temperature difference, a humid winter climate and a low body temperature. In order to understand the heating status and thermal comfort of rural residents in this climate zone, this paper takes Weining County in northwestern Guizhou as an example and investigates the heating methods, indoor thermal environment and thermal comfort of local rural residents by means of questionnaires and field tests. It’s found that most of the local rural buildings are brick and concrete structures, with 190 mm hollow cement bricks as the exterior wall material and no insulation layer, and the thermal performance of the buildings is poor. The main heating methods in local rural areas are charcoal burning, wood burning and electricity heating. In this paper, the indoor and outdoor environmental parameters of three typical farm houses using charcoal- burning heating, wood-burning heating and heating with electricity were tested respectively, while the thermal comfort votes of 71 residents were collected by means of questionnaires, and the test and voting results were analyzed. The test results of indoor thermal environment parameters showed that when residents were heating with charcoal, wood and electricity, the indoor temperature ranges were 9.4 ℃~15.0 ℃, 4.4 ℃~ 14.9 ℃ and 5.4 ℃~ 7.8 ℃, with the average temperatures of 12.9 ℃, 10.4 ℃ and 6.7 ℃, respectively, which were significantly lower than the standard comfort temperature range of 18 ℃ ~ 24 ℃; the indoor relative humidity ranges were 54.6%~76.9%, 53.9%~79.9%, 76.7%~84.5%, with average values of 65.6%, 64.5% and 80.8%, respectively, and the indoor relative humidity was higher than the standard comfortable humidity range of 20%~70% most of the time; the average indoor wind speed was 0.04 m/s, 0.02 m/s and 0.02 m/s, respectively, all of which are in a breeze environment. The indoor CO 2 concentration ranged from 260 ppm to 894 ppm, 203 ppm to 420 ppm, and 199 ppm to 429 ppm, with mean values of 423 ppm, 266 ppm, and 271 ppm, respectively. Indoor CO concentration varied from 0.27 ppm to 45.20 ppm and 0 ppm to19.23 ppm during charcoal heating and firewood heating. The average indoor CO concentration during charcoal heating was significantly higher than the standard limit, which poses a certain safety hazard and requires special attention to ventilation when using this method of heating. The thermal resistance of the subjects’ clothing ranged from 1.01 to 2.23 clo, with an average clothing thermal resistance of 1.49 clo, concentrated between 1.2 and 1.8 clo, and 8.45% of the sample had a clothing thermal resistance between 2.2 and 2.4 clo, which may be related to the need for residents to frequently enter and exit the indoor and outdoor areas. In the case that the indoortemperature is below the thermal comfort range and the humidity is above the standard range most of the time, the thermal acceptability of charcoal burning, wood burning and heating with electricity are 66.67%, 56.25% and 54.17%, respectively; the samples of acceptability of charcoal burning and wood burning for heating are 91.67% and 93.75%, respectively, which shows that the long-term living habits and economic conditions lead to the residents’ adaptability to the indoor environment stronger. In contrast, only 50.17% of the samples with electric heating are acceptable and 4.17% of the samples consider the indoor environment completely unacceptable, which shows that the electric heater used only makes the human body not feel too cold locally and has a poor effect on enhancing indoor thermal comfort. Through fitting calculations, the measured and predicted thermally neutral temperatures under the three heating methods were 13.9 ℃, 11.5 ℃, 7.6 ℃ and 17.6 ℃, 14.3 ℃, 8.8 ℃, respectively; the lower limits of 80% acceptable temperature for human body were 12.7 ℃, 9.9 ℃ and 7.1 ℃, respectively; the expected temperatures for human body when burning charcoal for heating and wood for heating were 14.7 ℃ and 13.6 ℃, respectively, which were lower than the predicted. The thermal neutral temperature is lower, which shows that the residents have lower psychological expectations of the indoor thermal environment. The analysis of the research results yielded reasonable parameters for winter heating in the area, which can be used as a reference basis for energy saving and thermal environment design of rural buildings in the southwest mountainous areas, and provide references for improving the indoor thermal environment in the area and choosing scientific and reasonable heating methods in the future, and have certain guiding significance for fighting poverty and ensuring comfortable and healthy lives of rural residents.
Key words:  Southwest Mountainous Area  Northwest Guizhou  Rural Residential  Heating Status  Thermal Comfort