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绿色建筑结合BIM技术的最新发展
许俊民
作者单位
许俊民 ( 通讯作者):香港大学工程学院, 客席助理 教授, cmhui@hku.hk 
摘要:
建筑信息模型(BIM)是一个使用数 字模型来支持虚拟设计和施工的协作工作流 程,可以简化项目交付工作流程并提高建筑 性能。使用BIM为能源绩效评估和可持续性 评估提供数据,被称为绿色BIM。近年来, BIM的采用在世界上许多国家和城市显著增 长。基于BIM的能效分析可以帮助项目设计 团队检查和创建优化的能源效率。绿色BIM 方法可以帮助专业人士预测建筑的结果,从 而在整个生命周期中将其对环境的影响降至 最低。如果能够收集有用的信息和数据并将 其提供给设施管理员和最终用户,绿色BIM 的潜力可以得到增强。本文将解释BIM的主 要特征,描述可持续建筑环境的信息要求和 管理,并探讨使用BIM和其他相关技术促进 绿色建筑发展的新机会。
关键词:  建筑信息建模  绿色建筑  可持续设 计  虚拟设计和施工  生命周期评估
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20200603
分类号:
基金项目:
Latest Development of Integrating Building Information Modelling (BIM) for GreenBuildings
HUI Chun Man Sam
Abstract:
Building information modelling (BIM) is a collaborative working process using digital models to support virtual design and construction, which can streamline project delivery workflow and improve business performances and productivity throughout the total life cycle of building assets. In principle, BIM can be defined as the process of creating and using digital models for design, construction, and/or operations of building or infrastructure projects. A BIM model is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life cycle. In recent years, BIM adoption has grown significantly in many countries and cities around the world. BIM is considered a major driver for the digital transformation and innovation of the construction sector; also, it has good potential to enhance sustainable construction and environmental sustainability. The use of BIM to provide data for energy performance evaluation and sustainability assessment is known as Green BIM. Usually, Green BIM includes building energy modelling dealing with project energy performance to identify options to optimize building energy efficiency during the life cycle. In addition, BIM can provide a decision support basis for evaluating the key carbon emission sources to achieve a holistic design and assessment of low carbon buildings. In practice, BIM-based energy analysis can help project design teams to examine and create optimized energy efficiency. A BIM-based approach to green building can assist professionals in predicting the outcomes of construction to minimize its impact on the environment throughout its life cycle. For green building projects, to facilitate modelling and analysis, four BIM capabilities are often applied including MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing) system modelling, energy and environment analysis, constructability analysis and structural analysis. With an integrated BIM-based design process, the necessary data for green building assessment can be extracted from BIM models for calculating the green rating and providing feedback for further evaluation. Also, the essential documentation necessary for obtaining green building certification can be generated timely and efficiently. Moreover, BIM has the potential to aid designers to select the right type of materials during the early design stage and to make vital decisions that have great impacts on the life cycle of sustainable buildings. By integrating BIM with building simulation tools and optimization methods, it is possible to achieve building performance optimization and support the visualization and management of a building’s operational performance. It is believed that BIM as a design iterative tool can offer new insights into the sustainable building design process in a multi-dimensional manner by considering the three important sustainability dimensions (economic, environmental and social). By linking BIM to sustainability analysis, it is possible to evaluate environmental impacts more effectively over the entire lifespan of building or infrastructure, therefore contribute to reduce waste and improve construction quality. Usually, the main BIM functions for sustainability analyses include energy consumption, carbon emissions, life cycle assessment, natural ventilation, solar and lighting analysis, acoustics, and water usage. The Green BIM potentials can be enhanced when useful information and data are collected and provided to facilities managers and building end-users. The exchange of information between BIM and other tools is a critical factor affecting the integration of BIM and green buildings. It is believed that an efficient interoperability along the life cycle supported by BIM will allow an overall better management and help users to improve sustainability of projects. More efforts are needed to be put in collecting, analyzing and sharing the right data for Green BIM applications. For example, reliable data exchange protocol and standard of building information is needed for BIM-enabled operations and maintenance work processes. To explore the Green BIM development, this research paper will explain the key characteristics of BIM, describe the information requirements and management for sustainable built environment, and discuss the new opportunities of using BIM and other related technologies for promoting green buildings. It is hoped that the Green BIM potentials can be further developed and enhanced for environmental sustainability monitoring and management over the building life cycle.
Key words:  Building Information Modelling  Green Buildings  Sustainable Design  Virtual Design and Construction  Life Cycle Assessment