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城市规划健康影响评估理论框架构建
王兰1, 孙文尧2, 陶 佳3, 谢 辉4
1.( 通讯作者):同济大学建筑与城市规划 学院,教授,博士生导师,wanglan@ tongji.edu.cn;2.同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,博士后;3.同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,硕士研 究生;4.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设与 新技术教育部重点实验室,教授,博士生 导师
摘要:
健康影响评估为预测城市发展、城市 规划方案和项目的健康效益提供框架,但在融 入我国城市规划中仍面临内容体系不清、技术 流程不明、模型体系未建立和工作方法缺失等 问题。本文构建了城市规划健康影响评估理论 框架,系统性地明确了面向城市规划的健康影 响评估内容体系、技术流程、模型体系和工作方 法。面向城市规划的健康影响评估可从“健康风 险控制影响评估”“健康资源支撑保障评估” 和“健康行为促进效益评估”3个方面开展;主 要技术流程包括参照对象确定、评估范围界定、 评估框架构建、评估方法选取和评估开展5个 步骤;模型体系由核心模型、相关模型和外围模 型构成;最后,规划编制团队与健康影响评估团 队可协作推进健康影响评估“全过程”融入规划。本文可为面向城市规划开展健康影响评估提供基本的理论、方法和机制指导。
关键词:  健康影响评估  健康城市规划  理论框架  模型方法  融入机制
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240307
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2023YFC3805305);高密 度人居环境生态与节能教育部重点实验室(同济大 学)暨上海同济城市规划设计研究院有限公司联合自 主课题(KY-2022-LH-A03);上海市2023年度“科 技创新行动计划”优秀技术带头人项目(23XD1433 900)
Theoretical framework for health impact assessment in urban planning
WANG Lan,SUN Wenyao,TAO Jia,XIE Hui
Abstract:
Health impact assessment can elucidate the potential health impacts of changes in the urban built environment, providing a framework for predicting the health benefits of urban development, planning schemes, and projects. Health impact assessment can be incorporated into the compilation and review processes of urban planning to assess and forecast the potential health benefits of these plans and projects. This paper systematically analyzes the challenges and difficulties faced by the theory, methods, and practice of health impact assessment in China. In conjunction with the characteristics of urban planning in China, it constructs a theoretical framework for health impact assessment oriented towards urban planning. This framework clarifies the content system, technical process, model system, and working methods of health impact assessment to provide theoretical, methodological, and mechanistic guidance for the comprehensive integration of health impact assessment into urban planning. Currently, health impact assessment in urban planning faces challenges such as unclear content systems, ambiguous technical processes, unestablished model systems, and lack of working methods, which hinder the full integration of health impact assessment into urban planning. Specifically, urban planning involves the coordinated arrangement of multiple spatial scales and elements, but the content system for conducting health impact assessment in this context has yet to be established, and the assessment elements and their pathways need to be clarified. Although existing health impact assessment projects generally follow the WHO’s “screening, scoping, impact assessment, and recommendations” process, the choice of assessment models is often based on project characteristics, data availability, and budget constraints. This reduces the generality of assessment models, the standardization of the assessment process, and the comparability of assessment results. Moreover, key technical aspects of “scoping” and “conducting the assessment” in this process remain vague, limiting their practical guidance. Internationally, the models used in health impact assessment are dispersed across urban planning, environmental science, and medicine, showing strong heterogeneity. Due to the lack of a unified model system, the principles for selecting health impact assessment models and directions for future optimization are unclear. Lastly, although health impact assessment is advocated as part of urban planning scheme formulation, its high demands for objectivity and professionalism mean it is mostly conducted by independent teams and often intervenes only after the planning scheme is formed, serving primarily to verify the planning scheme. In response to these issues and challenges, this paper constructs a theoretical framework for health impact assessment in urban planning, systematically clarifying the content system, technical process, model system, and working methods for health impact assessment. The content system aims to clarify the elements and pathways of health impact assessment and can be carried out from three aspects: health risk control impact assessment, health resource support guarantee assessment, and health behavior promotion benefit assessment. The technical process aims to clarify the specific steps and technical points for conducting a health impact assessment from a practical perspective, including five steps: determining the reference object, defining the assessment scope, constructing the assessment framework, selecting the assessment methods, and conducting the assessment. The model system aims to clarify the models that can be used in health impact assessment and the relationships between models. It consists of coremodels, related models, and peripheral models, which can be used to calculate the changes in health risk factors or health outcome indicators corresponding to changes in each planning element indicator. The working methods aim to clarify the mechanism for integrating health impact assessment into planning compilation, where planning compilation teams and health impact assessment teams can collaboratively promote the "whole process" integration of health impact assessment into planning. The relationships between these parts are as follows: the content system is determined based on existing healthy urban planning theoretical models; the technical process and model system are determined based on the content system, with health impact assessment models being the most critical part of the technical process; the working methods clarify the implementation path for integrating health impact assessment into urban planning from a mechanistic perspective. To enhance the reliability of health impact assessments in the future and to expand their application in urban planning, there are three key points to consider. First, it continues to deepen empirical research on the effects of the built environment on health outcomes, providing a stronger evidence base for healthy city planning interventions and health impact assessments. Second, it continuously develops and optimizes models to improve the suitability and usability of health impact assessment models within China’s planning system. Finally, it promotes the legalization of health impact assessments, establishing them as a mandatory component within the planning and development process at the institutional level.
Key words:  health impact assessment  healthy urban planning  theoretical framework  model methods  integration mechanism