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中国传统乡村聚落空间模式的句法解析
丁 杰1, 王如明2
1.(通讯作者):南京林业大学艺术设计学 院,副教授,dingjie@njfu.edu.cn;2.安徽财经大学艺术学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
传统聚落包括城镇与乡村,是中国历史 建筑环境的重要组成部分,表现出多种独特的 空间特征。由于以往研究主要集中在城镇的空 间形态上,且多以描述性分析为主,导致人们对 传统乡村聚落空间形态特征理解不足。研究提 出一种新的方法理解中国传统乡村聚落空间特 征,基于句法原理分析中国传统乡村聚落空间模 式的差异,并选取三组(9个)地域特征明显的 乡村聚落作为研究对象,运用星形模型和分类 空间测度的方法解读中国传统乡村聚落的空间 特征。结果发现,中国传统乡村聚落的空间模式 主要分为轴线导向型与河流导向型,前者体现了 《考工记》中“理想城镇”的空间模式,后者则 反映了风水理论中人与自然和谐共生的思想。研 究运用一系列数学测度方法来探索中国传统乡 村聚落的空间特征,可以促进对中国传统文化 的拓展解读,结果有助于更准确地理解中国传 统乡村聚落的空间分布格局。
关键词:  中国传统聚落  空间句法  星型模型  分类空间测度
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230515
分类号:
基金项目:国家社会科学基金艺术学项目(18CG197)
Understanding the Spatial Pattern of Historical Chinese Rural Settlements: A Syntactical Approach
DING Jie,WANG Ruming
Abstract:
Traditional settlements, including towns and villages, are an important part of Chinese historical architectural environment, showing a variety of unique spatial characteristics. Since the previous studies mainly focused on the spatial form of cities and towns, and mainly focused on the descriptive analysis, the spatial morphological characteristics of historical settlements in rural areas are unclear. This study proposes a new method to understand the spatial morphological characteristics of rural areas, and analyzes the differences of spatial patterns of traditional rural settlements in China based on syntactic principles. The 9 settlements (3 groups) with obvious regional characteristics were selected as the study objects, which were the Nanliuzhuang village, Baihoubao village and Caotuan village (Group 1) in the North China Plain; the Shitan village, Changxi village and Gaoyang village (Group 2) located in the Yangtze River delta region; as well as the Pingyan village, Pingan village and Tiantou village (Group 3) located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Then the star model is used to reveal the difference of spatial features among different samples. The star model provides a method to interpret the spatial pattern of traditional Chinese settlements, so as to understand whether the spatial pattern of settlements is inclined to organic distribution or regular layout. The star model results show that the traditional settlements pattern in China changes from north to south from standard settlements to deformation settlements and from background settlements to foreground settlements. The Han settlements are more structured than the minority settlements, and the northern settlements tend to be more integrated because of their regular street network structure. In addition, five measures of axiality, curvature, intelligibility, synergy and organic spatial layout are used to explain the differences of spatial structure of traditional settlements in different regions. Among them, the axiality and curvature can measure the deformation degree of the settlement space structure. Intelligibility and synergy measure the legibility and visibility of the spatial structure of a settlement. Organic spatial layout can be used to measure whether the spatial distribution of settlements is uniform. The results of categorized spatial measures show that the Han settlement shows the planning trend of the ideal urban pattern in Kaogongji. Specifically, northern settlements are more axiality and intelligibility than southern settlements, and have straighter street patterns. In the southern settlement, the river is in the integrated core area of the street network, and the spatial layout is more organic, so the river-oriented model can be applied to natural settlements with spatial organic distribution, mainly ethnic minority settlements, and some Han settlements in the south China have this feature too. In traditional feng shui ideal, the location of a settlement should take into account the realistic landscape location, such as sitting north (mountain) and facing south (river). In ancient times, rivers were very important to the spatial layout of settlements, because they not only provided water, but also served as important transportation channels to support economic development. The results found that in southern settlements, rivers tended to intersect with more integrated streets than with more choice degree streets. This further indicates that rivers play an important guiding role in the spatial layout of settlements in the south China. The difference of integration is more significant than the difference of choice in the spatial attribute of the decisive axis. The results show that the spatial pattern of traditional settlements in China can be divided into axiality-oriented and concentric river. The former reflects the spatial pattern of “ideal city” in Kaogongji, while the latter reflects the thought of harmonious coexistence between human and nature in feng shui ideal. This study uses a series of mathematical measurement methods to explore the spatial characteristics of Chinese traditional settlements, which can promote the expansion of the interpretation of Chinese traditional culture and contribute to a more accurate understanding of the spatial distribution pattern of Chinese traditional settlements. For example, in Confucianism, the regular layout pattern of Han settlements leads to significant spatial axiality, which further reflects the regular spatial cognitive pattern of five directions in ancient China, such as east, west, south, north and central. And the influence of feng shui ideal (the correlation between human and nature embodied in the natural landscape) on the spatial pattern of settlements.
Key words:  Historical Chinese Settlements  Space Syntax  Star Model  Categorized Spatial Measures