|关键词: CPTED 环境设计 犯罪预防 日本 导则
|Review and Implication on Guidelines of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Japan
SONG Ke,MAO Yuanyuan,LIU Yiling
|Security is an essential foundation and primary prerequisite for improving urban
environmental quality and promoting the vitality of public spaces. It is necessary to incorporate
“safety” into the vision of urban environmental design. The core concept of Crime Prevention
Through Environmental Design (CPTED) theory is to reduce crime and minimize residents’ fear
of crime through the rational design and effective use of built environments. Therefore, applying
CPTED theory to guide urban design can effectively enhance environmental design from a crime
prevention perspective and avoid problematic public space. Furthermore, CPTED theory has been
practiced in many countries, with accumulated experience and effectiveness in organizational
implementation, guideline development, and practical projects. Summarizing and drawing from
international experiences of applying and guiding environmental design based on CPTED theory is
thus crucial for sustainable urban development in China.
Previous studies in China had made significant progress in the theoretical and empirical studies
of CPTED and has confirmed its effectiveness in crime prevention and reducing public fear of crime.
However, the practical application of CPTED in China remains limited. In reviewing literature on
international CPTED design guidelines, there are several shortcomings. Firstly, the focus of research
on foreign CPTED guidelines is primarily on North American countries, which may not fully align
with China's unique social development context, thus limiting its applicability in China. Secondly,
the elements of CPTED guidelines currently primarily pertain to architectural scale, while urban
systems involve a broader range of spatial types, necessitating a more diverse perspective and a more
holistic view for further research and supplementation.
Japan and China share a similar urbanization process in the East Asian region. Since the introduction
of CPTED theory to Japan in the 1970s, it has gradually been applied in urban construction practices and
has led to a series of related guidelines. Therefore, Japan’s experience in environmental design for crime
prevention has significant relevance and potential for China. This paper aims to review the development of
CPTED theory at the city scale in Japan, as well as the compilation and implementation characteristics of
12 CPTED design guidelines. It also conducts case analyses of typical guidelines and strategies, providing
valuable insights for China’s future applications.
In terms of development stages, CPTED in Japan can be characterized by three phases: initial
research with limited practice, rapid and widespread adoption, and matured research and practice.
The transition involves a shift from a micro-level building-scale to a macro-level regional-scale.
It also shifts from a focus on specific residential environments to the consideration of the entire
complex urban system, with a goal of promoting urban or regional sustainability.
Regarding the compilation of CPTED guidelines, both research institutions and government
agencies are involved, collaborating to ensure the effective application of the guidelines in practice.
Compilation principles are based on four fundamental principles: ensuring visibility, enhancing
territoriality, controlling pathways, and reinforcing and protecting targets. These principles are
adjusted to suit local conditions, with an emphasis on the effective linkage between the physical
built environment and social activities. Guidelines can be categorized into national and regional
levels, with national guidelines proposing universal environmental design strategies based oncommon urban characteristics and issues, while regional guidelines tailor their objectives and plans to the local context. In terms of research purposes, these
guidelines can be classified into two categories: standard regulatory and public advisory.
In terms of guideline implementation, the process involves four stages: planning, doing, checking, and acting, forming a continuous cycle. The
implementation system includes both rigid controls (legal regulations and government planning) and flexible guidance (design standards and guidelines).
Collaboration involves various entities such as neighborhood committees, urban development organizations, non-profit organizations and residents.
Finally, considering the current conditions of urban development and planning in China, recommendations are provided for the formulation and
implementation of relevant strategies. In terms of guideline principles, safety dimensions should be incorporated promptly, and CPTED principles should
be adjusted based on regional characteristics and environmental types. Regarding guideline content, various types of organizations, including research
institutions in university and local governments, should collaborate on developing targeted strategies that can be integrated into actual planning systems.
In the implementation process, a feedback mechanism should be established based on risk assessment, planning, project implementation, and performance
evaluation. Comprehensive assessments of crime-prone environments and crime risk levels should consider both objective material vulnerability and
subjective perceptions of security. In terms of collaborative entities, efforts should be made to create a community network and sustain its vitality, leveraging
the long-term role of crime prevention. This research provides policy recommendations and insights for the future formulation or implementation of safety related urban design guidelines in China.
|Key words: CPTED Environmental Design Crime Prevention Japan Guideline