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日本环境设计预防犯罪导则评析及其启示
刘逸灵1
苏州大学建筑学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
环境设计预防犯罪理论自20世纪70年 代引入日本后,逐渐应用于城市建设实践,并制 定了一系列相关导则。通过梳理日本相关理论与 实践的发展历程、导则编制与实施情况,发现以 下特点:理论应用伴随本土化转变,兼顾环境建 设和社会自治;导则类型和内容因编制层级和目 的而不同,其适用对象和编制形式也各有针对 性;多主体参与、多体系管控保证导则实施。最 后结合我国规划设计情况,从CPTED策略本土 化灵活运用、针对性编制、周期评估以及社区网 络协作等方面提出相关建议,为未来我国制定 或推行相关导则提供经验借鉴。
关键词:  CPTED  环境设计  犯罪预防  日本  导则
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230511
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51778384)
Review and Implication on Guidelines of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Japan
LIU Yiling
Abstract:
Security is an essential foundation and primary prerequisite for improving urban environmental quality and promoting the vitality of public spaces. It is necessary to incorporate “safety” into the vision of urban environmental design. The core concept of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) theory is to reduce crime and minimize residents’ fear of crime through the rational design and effective use of built environments. Therefore, applying CPTED theory to guide urban design can effectively enhance environmental design from a crime prevention perspective and avoid problematic public space. Furthermore, CPTED theory has been practiced in many countries, with accumulated experience and effectiveness in organizational implementation, guideline development, and practical projects. Summarizing and drawing from international experiences of applying and guiding environmental design based on CPTED theory is thus crucial for sustainable urban development in China. Previous studies in China had made significant progress in the theoretical and empirical studies of CPTED and has confirmed its effectiveness in crime prevention and reducing public fear of crime. However, the practical application of CPTED in China remains limited. In reviewing literature on international CPTED design guidelines, there are several shortcomings. Firstly, the focus of research on foreign CPTED guidelines is primarily on North American countries, which may not fully align with China's unique social development context, thus limiting its applicability in China. Secondly, the elements of CPTED guidelines currently primarily pertain to architectural scale, while urban systems involve a broader range of spatial types, necessitating a more diverse perspective and a more holistic view for further research and supplementation. Japan and China share a similar urbanization process in the East Asian region. Since the introduction of CPTED theory to Japan in the 1970s, it has gradually been applied in urban construction practices and has led to a series of related guidelines. Therefore, Japan’s experience in environmental design for crime prevention has significant relevance and potential for China. This paper aims to review the development of CPTED theory at the city scale in Japan, as well as the compilation and implementation characteristics of 12 CPTED design guidelines. It also conducts case analyses of typical guidelines and strategies, providing valuable insights for China’s future applications. In terms of development stages, CPTED in Japan can be characterized by three phases: initial research with limited practice, rapid and widespread adoption, and matured research and practice. The transition involves a shift from a micro-level building-scale to a macro-level regional-scale. It also shifts from a focus on specific residential environments to the consideration of the entire complex urban system, with a goal of promoting urban or regional sustainability. Regarding the compilation of CPTED guidelines, both research institutions and government agencies are involved, collaborating to ensure the effective application of the guidelines in practice. Compilation principles are based on four fundamental principles: ensuring visibility, enhancing territoriality, controlling pathways, and reinforcing and protecting targets. These principles are adjusted to suit local conditions, with an emphasis on the effective linkage between the physical built environment and social activities. Guidelines can be categorized into national and regional levels, with national guidelines proposing universal environmental design strategies based oncommon urban characteristics and issues, while regional guidelines tailor their objectives and plans to the local context. In terms of research purposes, these guidelines can be classified into two categories: standard regulatory and public advisory. In terms of guideline implementation, the process involves four stages: planning, doing, checking, and acting, forming a continuous cycle. The implementation system includes both rigid controls (legal regulations and government planning) and flexible guidance (design standards and guidelines). Collaboration involves various entities such as neighborhood committees, urban development organizations, non-profit organizations and residents. Finally, considering the current conditions of urban development and planning in China, recommendations are provided for the formulation and implementation of relevant strategies. In terms of guideline principles, safety dimensions should be incorporated promptly, and CPTED principles should be adjusted based on regional characteristics and environmental types. Regarding guideline content, various types of organizations, including research institutions in university and local governments, should collaborate on developing targeted strategies that can be integrated into actual planning systems. In the implementation process, a feedback mechanism should be established based on risk assessment, planning, project implementation, and performance evaluation. Comprehensive assessments of crime-prone environments and crime risk levels should consider both objective material vulnerability and subjective perceptions of security. In terms of collaborative entities, efforts should be made to create a community network and sustain its vitality, leveraging the long-term role of crime prevention. This research provides policy recommendations and insights for the future formulation or implementation of safety related urban design guidelines in China.
Key words:  CPTED  Environmental Design  Crime Prevention  Japan  Guideline