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乡村振兴背景下农村土地开发困境与路径优化研究 ——基于公共、集体和个人利益比较视角
彭 航1, 谭少华2, 杨 春3, 赖文韬4
1.中国建筑西南设计研究院,助理工程师;2.(通讯作者): 重庆大学建筑城规学院, 山地城镇建设与新技术教育部重点实验 室,教授,tsh@cqu.edu.cn;3.清华大学建筑学院,助理研究员;4.成都市规划设计研究院,助理工程师
摘要:
乡村振兴战略下我国农村土地开发面临 着多元主体利益冲突与协调困境。以四川省3个村 庄作为研究对象,采用多案例对比、多主体分析 的研究思路,分别解析政府主导、市场主导、村 集体主导三种村庄土地开发路径的开发过程与 驱动机制,并总结其在利益分配方面的困境或不 足。研究结果表明,在公共利益、集体利益和个 人利益的博弈中,开发主体及行为动机差异是造 成利益冲突困境的根本原因。其中,政府和市场 主导的村庄土地开发存在较多的利益分配不协调 问题,而村集体主导能够较好地协调公共、集体 和个人利益的关系。在农村土地开发过程中协调 处理好利益主体的相互关系是解决问题的关键, 应当通过开发主体限制、平台构建、利益联结和 协商机制的确立,实现可持续的农村土地开发与 乡村振兴战略的全面推进。
关键词:  乡村振兴  农村土地开发  利益比较  公共利益  现实困境
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230505
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD1100300)
Research on the Difficulties and Paths of Rural Land Development Under the Background of Rural Revitalization
PENG Hang,TAN Shaohua,YANG Chun,LAI Wentao
Abstract:
: In China, land is the spatial carrier of farmers’ production and life, and land reform constitutes an important breakthrough and core area of China’s rural revitalization strategy. The distribution of land development benefits is related to the basic rights and interests of farmers, and has always been valued by the Chinese government. In 2023, the No. 1 central document of the Central Committee of the Chinese Government also proposed to “explore and establish an effective adjustment mechanism for land appreciation income that takes into account the interests of the state, rural collective economic organizations and farmers”, endowing farmers with more adequate property rights, and providing policy guidance for promoting rural revitalization and common prosperity. With the implementation of rural revitalization, rural land development has been undergoing market-oriented and diversified changes in recent years. In the process of rural land system reform and urban capital going to the countryside, the incompatibility between government led rural land development and the national strategy of social and economic development and rural revitalization in the new era is becoming increasingly apparent. The market, village collective organizations, and villagers become important participants and organizers. In this context, this article focuses on the three types of interest units involved in rural land development: public interest, collective interest, and personal interest. Using “interest comparison” as the research entry point and based on three typical cases of rural land development in Sichuan, China, this study aims to explore the interest units and their behavioral characteristics on agricultural land. And from both theoretical and practical perspectives, explore the working mechanism and difficulties or shortcomings of rural land development driven by different entities such as government, market, and village collective. Finally, a development review will be conducted from the perspective of interest comparison, and relevant suggestions will be proposed. Through case comparison, it was found that there is a significant imbalance in the distribution of benefits between the government and market leaders; village collective leadership can better balance the interests of the public, collective, and individual. From the perspective of public interest, government led public interest protection is the best; secondly, village collective leadership; the second is market led. In the process of capital going to the countryside, influence peddling, responsibility dislocation and decision-making failure often occur. From the perspective of collective interests, both market and village collective leadership can achieve the maximization of collective interests, with the difference being that the former is highly bound to market enterprises, while the latter is more closely connected to villagers. From the perspective of personal interests, all three paths provide basic production and living security for villagers, and land development participants can also obtain land appreciation benefits. However, only under the leadership of the village collective has sufficient institutional design and arrangements been made for the allocation of rights and responsibilities, democratic participation, village decision-making and governance, meeting the deep-seated interests and needs of villagers. In the end, it is believed that 1) after the implementation of China’s rural revitalization strategy, the number of rural land interest units has increased and the relationships are complex. Different villages form different benefit distribution patterns based on the differences of development subjects, policy environment and behavior motivation, which ultimately affects the effectiveness of rural construction. Therefore, in rural revitalization, attention should be paid to the full participation of all stakeholders in the land sector. The government, market, village collective, and villagers should play their roles in appropriate links and specific fields, avoid the strong dominance of a single interest, pay attention to safeguarding multiple interests, and rely on fair and efficient development system design to obtain support from stakeholders. 2) The advantages of location resources and management systems are essential elements for achieving rural revitalization. Material conditions such as transportation location and industrial development, as well as non material conditions such as the management ability of village committees and land preparation, have become important conditions for achieving results in rural construction. It is necessary to focus on selecting villages with good location conditions and industrial foundations for development, in order to avoid large scale and dynamic “land urbanization”. 3) In the specific organization, implementation, and management of rural land development, policy measures such as restrictions on development entities, platform construction, interest linkage, and establishment of negotiation mechanisms should be taken. Coordinate the relationship between public interests, collective interests, and personal interests to achieve sustainable rural land development. However, in the specific development practices of villages in various regions of China, which may involve complex overlapping and gaming of stakeholders, more in-depth and detailed research is needed.
Key words:  Rural Vitalization  Rural Land Development  Comparison of Interests  Public Interest  Realistic Dilemma