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解读和协商 ——雨补鲁和板万村的乡土空间重现
曹 卿1, 陈益阳2
1.挪威奥斯陆建筑与设计学院,博士研究 生,239549815@qq.com;2.中央美术学院建筑学院,博士研究生
摘要:
当代乡村建设,尤其是在多方介入 的贵州偏远山区传统村落改造中,各方存在 认知的分化和博弈,各个主体的行为相互协 商并共同作用在空间实践中。本文以黔西南 州两个传统村落空间改造为调查样本,分析 介入乡建各个行为主体的行动逻辑与协商策 略选择的相关因素:政策背景为协商提供舞 台;当地政府为各方协商提供具体机会;资 本是协商中的机会主义者,村民是他者想象 的受益者,而专家建筑师起着协调者和引导 者的作用。同时,通过对具体事例的分析, 针对专家建筑师所参与的乡村改造中的协商 提出解读:博弈是形塑乡土空间的手段;协 商是解决认知碰撞的途径;博弈中的共识关 系是不断变换的。因此,充分解读乡建中各 方的博弈与协商逻辑,是把握乡村空间重现 的重要抓手。
关键词:  乡村建设  行为主体  协商  空间 重现
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190311
分类号:
基金项目:
Interpretation and Negotiation—Reproducing Vernacular Space in Yubulu and Banwan Village
CAO Qing,CHEN Yiyang
Abstract:
Rural is materialized through social, ecological and political relations involving a variety of actors. The state, farmers, rural residence, government officers, and a host of nonhuman factors are engaged in the production and reproduction of vernacular space. Rural area in Guizhou Province was identified, as impoverished area, ethnic region and mountainous settlement, rural reconstruction, which conducted here, were complex and arduous. It will be argued that conflict can be easily arised during the process of decision-making and planning, and led to unproductive development interventions due to all involved actors with different backgrounds and expectations. Negotiation, however, may serve as an appropriate basic mechanism to organize social and spatial development efforts, and it provides a better solution for dealing with the conflicts that emerge within the participatory processes. What is more, negotiation is a crucial mechanism to shape the result of vernacular space reproduction. This paper draws on comprehensive observation and interpretation in exploring the involved actors in spatial reproduction driven by rural reconstruction, and focuses on analyzing the action logic behind related actors and factors. Finally, the pragmatic aspect and potential of negotiation for vernacular special reproduction are discussed. The two cases, Yubulu Village, and Banwan Village are presented as examples, which are located in the periphery area of rural Guizhou. In the year of 2015 and 2016, rural reconstructions were launched in the two villages respectively. In the processing of rural reconstruction of Yubulu and Banwan Village, five participating actors were contributed to the rural spatial reproduction. National policy and regional policy serves as judgment norms and provide a platform for negotiation activities, even though they are unable to participate dynamically into spatial reproduction. Local government is the organizer, investigator, and executor in rural reconstruction launched in poverty-stricken and remote villages which are unable to launch reconstruction by themselves. Local government is easily trapped in a development paradigm that leads to natural resource capitalized and cultural resource capitalized. Cultural poverty alleviation provides an opportunity for expert architects to get involved in the spatial practice in poor rural area. Expert architects have to undertake a non-traditional construction role, who not only provide professional consultation base on the full consideration of the symbolic and cultural value of the site but also act as negotiators to interpret and solve the conflicts in fund allocation, interpersonal relationships, and construction organizations. Villagers in Yubulu and Banwan may be opposed to the representation of space which is proposed by the local government and expert architects. Villages are short of means of bargaining with other actors, however, villages could participate in the negotiation with tactics including forbear, resistance and reverse invasion. External capital is the main fund supplement to rural reconstruction in the remote village except for government finance. Some private enterprises did help targeted poor villages within the campaign of “10 000 enterprises assisting 10 000 villages,” however, more private enterprises aim to get the profit of a natural and cultural resource with the slogan of “development” and “modernization.” Unlike construction work in the urban area, vernacular reproduction in rural reconstruction cannot totally rely on accurate planning drawings; on the contrary, these production activities were depended on many informal and improvised activities, which cannot be pre-designed in the planning texts. Conflicts in the rural reconstruction of the two villages are concentrated on the infrastructure construction, housing renovation, and public facilities construction. The four selected examples illustrate differences in problem orientedness, aspirations, and justification among involved actors, and discuss how negotiation achieves favorable results. Negotiation for solving conflict is no d isorderly but show a certain principle. Firstly, negotiation is t he opportunities for embedding i mplicit knowledge. In rural reconstruction, the conflict of interests is the representation of the collision of ideas. However, the cognitive collision provides opportunities to understand each other and comprehended rural interpretation by stakeholders who are users and managers after reconstruction. Therefore, negotiation enables villagers to appreciate rural value and development potential, and also understand the concept of responsibilities and seeking mutual benefit. Furthermore, negotiation could deliver sustainable reconstruction approach to grass-roots officials. Of course, the design team would correct and improves ideas and methods in the process of negotiation. Secondly, the consensus relationships among involved actors are constantly changing. Stakeholders could make the different tacit choice to maximize their interest when they encountered various issues related to land, dwell and other livelihood aspects. Different relationship networks could be formed based on and various interest pursuit and ideas. However, the coalitions that built on the specific situation were not stable, because related parties were agreed with each other on one thing, but would become rivals on another matter. Thirdly, the investment of the reconstruction project came from the special fund of local government. The usage of the fund would think more about planning for a larger region and neglect whether the resource fit with the specific village development. The negotiations could provide a solution mechanism for the use of capital and resource. It helps to abandon the traditional cognition about capital, widen local government’s vision about village development that infrastructure construction was not the primary goal.
Key words:  Rural Reconstruction  Involved Actors  Negotiation  Space Reproduction