|关键词: 乡村建设 行为主体 协商 空间
|Interpretation and Negotiation—Reproducing Vernacular Space in Yubulu and Banwan Village
CAO Qing,CHEN Yiyang
|Rural is materialized through social, ecological and political relations involving a
variety of actors. The state, farmers, rural residence, government officers, and a host of nonhuman
factors are engaged in the production and reproduction of vernacular space. Rural area
in Guizhou Province was identified, as impoverished area, ethnic region and mountainous
settlement, rural reconstruction, which conducted here, were complex and arduous. It will be
argued that conflict can be easily arised during the process of decision-making and planning,
and led to unproductive development interventions due to all involved actors with different
backgrounds and expectations. Negotiation, however, may serve as an appropriate basic
mechanism to organize social and spatial development efforts, and it provides a better solution
for dealing with the conflicts that emerge within the participatory processes. What is more,
negotiation is a crucial mechanism to shape the result of vernacular space reproduction.
This paper draws on comprehensive observation and interpretation in exploring the involved
actors in spatial reproduction driven by rural reconstruction, and focuses on analyzing the action
logic behind related actors and factors. Finally, the pragmatic aspect and potential of negotiation
for vernacular special reproduction are discussed. The two cases, Yubulu Village, and Banwan
Village are presented as examples, which are located in the periphery area of rural Guizhou. In
the year of 2015 and 2016, rural reconstructions were launched in the two villages respectively.
In the processing of rural reconstruction of Yubulu and Banwan Village, five participating
actors were contributed to the rural spatial reproduction. National policy and regional policy
serves as judgment norms and provide a platform for negotiation activities, even though they
are unable to participate dynamically into spatial reproduction. Local government is the
organizer, investigator, and executor in rural reconstruction launched in poverty-stricken and
remote villages which are unable to launch reconstruction by themselves. Local government is
easily trapped in a development paradigm that leads to natural resource capitalized and cultural
resource capitalized. Cultural poverty alleviation provides an opportunity for expert architects
to get involved in the spatial practice in poor rural area. Expert architects have to undertake a
non-traditional construction role, who not only provide professional consultation base on the
full consideration of the symbolic and cultural value of the site but also act as negotiators to
interpret and solve the conflicts in fund allocation, interpersonal relationships, and construction
organizations. Villagers in Yubulu and Banwan may be opposed to the representation of space which is proposed by the local government and expert architects. Villages are short of means of bargaining with other actors, however, villages could
participate in the negotiation with tactics including forbear, resistance and reverse invasion. External capital is the main fund supplement to rural
reconstruction in the remote village except for government finance. Some private enterprises did help targeted poor villages within the campaign of “10
000 enterprises assisting 10 000 villages,” however, more private enterprises aim to get the profit of a natural and cultural resource with the slogan of
“development” and “modernization.”
Unlike construction work in the urban area, vernacular reproduction in rural reconstruction cannot totally rely on accurate planning drawings;
on the contrary, these production activities were depended on many informal and improvised activities, which cannot be pre-designed in the
planning texts. Conflicts in the rural reconstruction of the two villages are concentrated on the infrastructure construction, housing renovation, and
public facilities construction. The four selected examples illustrate differences in problem orientedness, aspirations, and justification among involved
actors, and discuss how negotiation achieves favorable results.
Negotiation for solving conflict is no d isorderly but show a certain principle. Firstly, negotiation is t he opportunities for embedding i mplicit
knowledge. In rural reconstruction, the conflict of interests is the representation of the collision of ideas. However, the cognitive collision provides
opportunities to understand each other and comprehended rural interpretation by stakeholders who are users and managers after reconstruction.
Therefore, negotiation enables villagers to appreciate rural value and development potential, and also understand the concept of responsibilities and
seeking mutual benefit. Furthermore, negotiation could deliver sustainable reconstruction approach to grass-roots officials. Of course, the design
team would correct and improves ideas and methods in the process of negotiation.
Secondly, the consensus relationships among involved actors are constantly changing. Stakeholders could make the different tacit choice to
maximize their interest when they encountered various issues related to land, dwell and other livelihood aspects. Different relationship networks
could be formed based on and various interest pursuit and ideas. However, the coalitions that built on the specific situation were not stable, because
related parties were agreed with each other on one thing, but would become rivals on another matter.
Thirdly, the investment of the reconstruction project came from the special fund of local government. The usage of the fund would think more
about planning for a larger region and neglect whether the resource fit with the specific village development. The negotiations could provide a
solution mechanism for the use of capital and resource. It helps to abandon the traditional cognition about capital, widen local government’s vision
about village development that infrastructure construction was not the primary goal.
|Key words: Rural Reconstruction Involved Actors Negotiation Space Reproduction