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城市轨道交通站域的空间结构的层次化解析研究——以上海为例
焦洪赞1, 黄世彪1, 周煜2
1.武汉大学;2.华东师范大学
摘要:
解析轨道交通站域空间结构对于建立城市轨道交通为主导的城市空间发展架构至关重要,其有助于优化城市空间布局,促进交通与土地利用融合,进而推动城市可持续发展。本文利用交通刷卡大数据,基于轨道交通站域的功能相似性和邻接关系提出了轨道交通功能站组的概念,并形成了一套“站域功能分类—站组结构解析—站群优化分析”的方法体系。以上海市轨道交通为例,(1)针对单个站域,构建表征站域土地利用功能的连续客流时间序列,并通过分类时间序列得到各个站域的功能类型;(2)将多个具有相似的出行模式和土地利用功能的相邻站域合并为功能站组;(3)采用社区发现算法对站组间的客流交互网络进一步分组以获得站群结果。最后,从高峰时段和非高峰时段探讨了不同站群内部的交互关系,并分析了城市轨道交通“站域—站组—站群”的层次化结构特征。研究结果表明,本文提出的研究方法有助于分析轨道交通站域空间结构中存在的问题,并能提供多层次视角的规划治理策略。
关键词:  空间结构  城市站域  空间交互  城市功能  TOD
DOI:
分类号:TU 984.11
基金项目:
Research on the Hierarchical Analysis of Spatial Structure in Urban Metro Station Areas—A case study of Shanghai
Jiao Hongzan,Huang Shibiao,Zhou Yu
Abstract:
Guiding urban development towards a "multi-center, cluster-based" model to promote the optimization of urban spatial structure and quality improvement has gradually become an important issue in the development of large cities. The planning and construction of urban rail transit directly influence the reorganization of urban spatial structure and adjustments in transportation modes, playing a crucial role in guiding urban spatial structure. Understanding the state and manifestation of urban spatial structure under the influence of rail transit is crucial for establishing urban spatial axes dominated by urban rail transit, optimizing urban spatial layout, and promoting the integration of transportation and land use. To mitigate the negative impacts of rapid urbanization, urban managers have advocated for transit-oriented development (TOD), focusing on urban development around rapid transit nodes. However, TOD planning in major Chinese cities generally focuses on individual subway stations, leading to inadequate coordination and systematic planning. Understanding the spatial structure of urban station areas (subway stations and their surrounding areas) is of great significance for promoting the coordination of TOD planning and the systematic integration of transportation and land use. This paper proposes the concept of a subway functional station group based on the functional similarity and adjacency of subway stations and develops a set of methods for structural analysis and optimization, including "station area functional classification—functional structure analysis—optimization strategy analysis." Using the Shanghai subway network as an example, (1) the passenger flow pattern sequence for each station area over five consecutive workdays is constructed to characterize the land use functions of station areas and classify them into areas with different functions; (2) multiple adjacent station areas with similar functions are merged into the same functional station group, where internal station areas exhibit similar travel patterns and land use functions; (3) community detection algorithms are used to further group passenger flow interaction networks between station groups to obtain station cluster results. Finally, the interaction between station groups within different peak and off-peak periods is explored to provide improvement strategies for subway travel for long-distance commuting and leisure activities. The study analyzes the hierarchical structure of urban subway station areas—"station area—station group—station cluster" and validates it through methods and practices. The results of the study contribute to identifying important areas dependent on rail transit, providing TOD governance strategies that are in line with urban characteristics and regional features, and offering possible reference for the coordinated governance and systematic optimization of urban subway station area space.
Key words:  Spatial structure  urban station domains  spatial interaction  urban functions  Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)