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城市知识转移视角下TOD型社区的演变:从新加坡到中国
祁巍锋, 朱逸飞, 曹康
浙江大学
摘要:
强调公共交通与居民日常需求的结合的TOD模式作为一种城市知识在从区域到社区的多个尺度都有应用,已在全球得到了广泛的实践。本文探讨了TOD模式作为城市知识从新加坡转移到中国,在浙江省实现在地化,随后转移到全国部分省市的过程。新加坡的TOD型社区模式作为一种城市知识,最初被浙江杭州的七彩社区吸收并转化。浙江省以七彩社区为样板提出了未来社区概念,并利用政策工具全省范围内推广,形成了TOD型未来社区在浙江省的迭代发展。未来社区模式作为一种城市知识也传播到中国的四川、重庆、广东等省市。本文建立城市知识转移框架,藉此分析TOD模式从新加坡到中国的传播过程,并探讨影响城市知识转移的因素。这一转移实践不仅促进了城市知识的在地化创新,也促进了城市规划发展与城市的进步。
关键词:  城市知识  知识转移  TOD模式  未来社区
DOI:
分类号:TU
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)“中国境外规划项目的知识流动研究:历程·机理·效应”(项目批准号:52278082)
Evolution of TOD mode community under the perspective of urban knowledge transfer: from Singapore to China
qiweifeng, zhuyifei, caokang
Abstract:
The TOD(Transit-Oriented Development)model, a concept that focuses on the harmonious integration of public transportation systems with the daily lives of urban residents, has gained global recognition as a pivotal urban planning strategy. Its application spans various scales, from regional level to specific communities, demonstrating its versatility and adaptability. Urban knowledge is the most important type of knowledge created by human beings. It is the knowledge about the development and change of cities, and it is also useful information for urban planning and innovation. Different from the general abstract academic knowledge, urban knowledge is action-oriented and plays an important role in local policy making and urban development. TOD model is a typical urban knowledge which is beneficial to urban and rural planning and development.This article discussed the process of transferring the TOD-type community model as an urban knowledge from Singapore, a pioneer in TOD implementation, to China, especially Zhejiang Province, and eventually to other Chinese provinces and cities, which provided a typical case study. Singapore’s TOD-type community model was initially absorbed and transformed by the Seven Color Community in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Taking the Seven Color Community as a template, Zhejiang Province had put forward an initiative of Future Community and subsequently promoted multiple TOD-type future communities across the province. The Future Community model, as an urban knowledge, was then exported to other provinces and cities in China, including Sichuan, Chongqing, and Guangdong. These regions adapted the core principles of TOD in terms of their unique conditions, resulting in a diverse array of TOD-type Future Communities that were tailored to the local needs and aspirations. Based on the literatures on urban knowledge and knowledge transfer, this article proposed a framework for analyzing the TOD model of urban knowledge transfer through three elements, namely transfer subject, transfer content, and transfer context. The arguments are as follow. 1. Urban knowledge needs to be transferred by subjects, which mainly include two types of knowledge source and knowledge acceptor that involve different spatial and administrative scales and can be transformed into each other. Specifically, in the case of this article, TOD-type community model transferred across multiple scales such as country, province, city, and community, and the source and receptor had undergone multiple transformations. In exporting Singapore’s TOD-type community model to China and forming the Future Community model, Singapore was the source of knowledge and China was the recipient of knowledge. In addition, in formation and diffusing the Future Community model, Zhejiang Province was the source, and other provinces and cities were the recipients. The Seven Color Community, as a prototype of Zhejiang’s Future Community model, was a source, while Yangliujun Community, Nanteng Future Community and other related communities in Hangzhou were the recipient. 2. The degree of knowledge dominance is positively correlated with the transfer of urban knowledge. In this case, Singapore initially applied the TOD-type community model originated from the United States to construct its new towns. Subsequently, Singapore’s new town was used as a reference by Seven Color Community, which acted as a prototype to form the provincial policy of Zhejiang’s Future Community. After several iterations, Future Community both as a model and an urban knowledge had been promoted in the whole Zhejiang province and even some other Chinese provinces and cities. In this transnational and transregional process of urban knowledge, the planning ideas, management methods, and experiences shared were tacit knowledge, and needed for making explicit. 3. Two dimensions of cultural difference and trust relationship were selected in this case. In a cross-cultural context, different individuals, teams, or organizations have different values, behaviors, communication methods, etc., which will affect the effect of knowledge transfer. Excessive cultural differences will lead to high communication costs and misunderstandings of information, thus hindering the transfer of knowledge. In addition, trust relationship also plays an important moderating role. If the knowledge source and recipient trust and respect each other well, the knowledge share and impart would be easy and efficient, avoiding the hiding and retaining of the knowledge. Three urban knowledge transfer strategies can be derived from these arguments. The first strategy is to establish a deep trust relationship between the sources and recipients of knowledge transfer and mobilize the enthusiasm of theirs. The second one is to promote the explicit of tacit knowledge, summarizing and sharing successful experiences. The last one is to make reasonable use of new transfer technologies, as well as develop multiple transfer forms and media. The transfer practice of urban knowledge been studied by this article not only fosters innovation and development in urban planning but also contributes to the overall progress and well-being of cities and their residents. As urbanization continues to accelerate worldwide, the exchange and application of urban knowledge will become even more crucial in shaping sustainable and liveable cities of the future.
Key words:  urban knowledge  knowledge transfer  TOD mode  future community