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和田传统民居气候适应性营造特征与优化研究
王万江, 董若琦, 樊辉, 方志诚
新疆大学
摘要:
在适应气候变化战略背景下, 提高城市建筑适应气候变化能力, 推动城市更新行动是城镇高质量发展的重要路径。这一过程需顺应城市发展规律, 关注气候因素对城市及建筑的影响。传统建筑营造作为这一地区气候特征以及气候适应建筑设计经验的集中反映, 仍发挥着重要作用。因此本文通过Climate Consultant气候分析软件对和田气象数据分析得出和田气候特征及建筑气候要素, 并根据传统民居所反映的特定地理气候条件下应对气候适应的建筑设计经验提取了建筑气候适应性营造特征,通过可视化数据挖掘(VDM)结合建议措施补充优化和田传统民居气候适应性营造。研究表明:和田传统民居营造在建筑维度的平面布局、组织原理、围护结构、门窗洞口等方面均表现有气候适应特征, 同时采取遮阳、被动式利用太阳能、绿化、夜间通风等气候适应性措施对气候有着积极的相应作用。结合软件分析得出的建议方法和措施, 在形制布局、门窗洞口、构造做法三方面提出了相应的补充优化建议。研究可为和田地区居住建筑的更新与优化提供理论依据, 同时亦可为和田城市更新建设气候适应型城市过程中既有建筑的气候适应性更新改造提供参考。
关键词:  气候适应性  传统民居  营造特征  和田地区
DOI:
分类号:TU253
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金:“双碳”目标下喀什地区乡村住宅适应性研究(2022D01C412)
Analytical Study on the Characteristics and Optimisation of Climate Adaptability Construction of Traditional Residences in Hotan
WANG Wanjiang, DONG Ruoqi, FAN Hui, FANG Zhicheng
Abstract:
With the escalation of global warming and the frequent occurrence of extreme climate events, how urban buildings can better adapt to climate change has become a crucial aspect of achieving high-quality urban development and the path to sustainable urbanization. Therefore, within the strategic context of adapting to climate change, enhancing the climate adaptability of urban buildings and promoting urban renewal initiatives are identified as vital pathways. This process is not only related to the comfort and safety of the buildings themselves but is also closely connected to the overall ecological environment of the city, the quality of life of its residents, and the future development of the urban landscape. It is necessary to follow the urban development patterns and fully consider the impact of climatic factors on both cities and buildings. Traditional building construction, as a concentrated reflection of the climatic characteristics and experience of climate-adapted building design in this region, still plays an important role in the climate adaptability design of modern buildings and has important reference value. Therefore, this paper takes the Hotan region as an example, which is located in the southernmost part of Xinjiang, analyzing the meteorological data CSWD (Chinese Standard Weather Data) of the region using the Climate Consultant software. It delves into the climatic characteristics of Hotan and their impact on architectural climate elements, including solar radiation, air temperature, humidity and precipitation, and wind. On this foundation, the paper extracts targeted architectural climate adaptability features in conjunction with the specific manifestations of climate adaptability in the architectural design of traditional dwellings in the Hotan area. Further, it employs Visual Data Mining (VDM) technology, combined with the suggested measures from the software analysis, to optimize the climate adaptability characteristics of traditional dwellings in Hotan. The study reveals that the Hotan region is characterized by an extreme arid desert climate, the climatic conditions in the Hotan area are quite unique and less comfortable but possess high potential for climate resources. Combining traditional architectural features, the paper examines the climate adaptability characteristics of traditional dwellings from two dimensions: architecture and climate adaptation measures. The traditional dwellings in the Hotan area exhibit climate adaptability features in architectural dimensions such as layout, organizational principles, enclosure structures, and door and window openings. These are summarized as climate adaptation strategies primarily aimed at enhancing the insulation and heat retention performance of enclosure structures, keeping warm and gaining heat in winter, and cooling, heat prevention, and humidity increase in summer. In addition, climate adaptation measures such as shading, passive solar utilization, greening, and night-time ventilation have a positive effect on climate adaptation. However, current practices are insufficiently responsive to these needs, and with the improvement of living standards and changes in residential demands, further supplementation and optimization of climate adaptability features through passive strategies are required. Assisted by Visual Data Mining technology (VDM) and combined with the suggestions proposed by the software analysis, this paper puts forward further optimization suggestions in three aspects: formal layout, door and window openings, and construction practices. For instance, in terms of formal layout, the orientation and layout of buildings are reasonably set according to modern living needs while considering climate adaptation; in terms of enclosure structures, the insulation and heat retention performance of the building enclosure is enhanced; in terms of door and window openings, the size of the openings and shading measures are reasonably arranged to utilize passive solar energy; in terms of construction practices, measures that can be adjusted according to climate changes, such as planting green trees, are added. In summary, this study provides a theoretical basis and practical guidance for the renewal and optimization of traditional dwellings in the Hotan area, which is of great significance for enhancing the climate adaptability of urban buildings and promoting sustainable urban development. At the same time, it also offers beneficial references for architectural design and renewal in cities with similar climatic conditions.
Key words:  climate adaptation  traditional residence  construction features  Hotan area