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降低仰光灾害风险的参与式设计实践与启示
胡任元, 周凌
南京大学建筑与城市规划学院
摘要:
基于我国积极推行乡村振兴,以及鼓励多元主体参与社会治理的政策取向,本文以缅甸仰光市哈朗他亚镇第20区参与式设计实践为例,对以降低地方灾害风险为导向的规划方案进行归纳,分析其设计模式、研究路径、调研方法和操作流程,并总结实地调研过程中的不足之处,以期从设计师的角度为我国乡镇级别的参与式设计实践提供经验和启示。
关键词:  参与式设计  灾害风险  风险累积  乡村振兴
DOI:
分类号:TU981
基金项目:
Practices and Implications from the Participatory Design for Local Disaster Risk Reduction in Yangon
Hu renyuan, Zhou lin
Abstract:
In 2013, the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee made a comprehensive plan for deepening rural reform, clearly proposing to accelerate the process of urban-rural integration, and implement the decentralization of villagers' rights and interests. In 2017, in the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the rural revitalization strategy was proposed, and pointed out that the issue of agriculture, rural farmers is a fundamental issue related to the national economy and people's livelihood. In this context, "rural development" has become a new social issue in China, and many architects, planners, investors and government departments have carried out various experiments and faced related development challenges. At present, most of China's rural construction takes economy as the main goal, which is easy to follow the policy direction or commercial trend, ignoring the subjectivity and long-term nature of rural development. On the one hand, government departments have the leading force and decision-making power in the planning process, and some projects often only pursue short-term interests and economic returns, without fully investigating local conditions, assessing the pros and cons of planning, collecting public opinions, and cultivating villagers to build their own spatial awareness and capabilities. On the other hand, local villagers lack the expression of the living environment for a long time, resulting in the gradual weakening of the sense of ownership of villagers, the ability to participate in rural planning and construction projects, some even do not care about who is planning, implementing and managing the village, eventually there is a phenomenon of "collective aphasia". Faced with this situation, the actual needs of rural areas have not been fully tapped, the rich local knowledge and resources have not been fully utilized, and the enthusiasm of villagers has not been fully mobilized. Therefore, guiding different stakeholders to participate in the process of village planning and construction is of great significance for the sustainable development and rural revitalization of our country. In theory, "participatory design" can be used as an entry point to promote rural regeneration in China in the future, providing a platform for multiple social groups and stakeholders to cooperate with each other. The participatory design theory conforms to the Chinese government's principles of "putting people first" and "adhering to the mass line", and can be combined with China's basic national conditions to form a development model and planning system combining "top-down" and "bottom-up". This paper takes Ward-20, Hlaing Thar Yar Township, Yangon City, Myanmar, as the research object, uses participatory design method to conduct a study of the local disaster risk reduction issues, analyzes its design model, research path, research methods and operation process, and formulates corresponding strategies and intervention measures. The specific research content can be divided into three stages: pre-fieldwork, fieldwork and post-fieldwork. First, before the fieldwork, the team members obtained relevant secondary data through literature and official reports to gather Myanmar's development history and current situation, initially discussed the research framework, and identified two main analytical tools of risk accumulation and resilience in the field research. This process aims to understand the process and measure in place to respond to disasters at the national level, and to identify institutional gaps in the decision-making process and existing levels of community participation. This is followed by the field research phase, where first-hand data is obtained through multiple contacts with Myanmar government organizations, stakeholder third parties, and community members to comprehend the local disaster risk, their perceptions and perceptions of the risk concept, community coping mechanisms, and proposed solutions. The results of the survey contribute to realizing the operation and decision-making procedure of government agencies and the impact of expanding existing relationship practices at the community level. By integrating the strategy of Ward-20 to Yangon City across time and spatial scales to achieve city-wide upgrading goals. In recent years, with the continuous promotion of China's rural revitalization strategy, an increasing number of designers, architects, artists, etc., have begun to pay attention to rural development and actively participated in it. Participatory rural design in China has achieved certain results and experience, however, it cannot be denied that the participation and subjectivity of villagers are frequently ignored in the participation and decision-making process. Based on the experience and deficiencies of participatory design practice in Myanmar, including the formalism of participatory design, the inefficiency of participatory process, the immaturity of civil society, the incomplete theme of participation and the lack of long-term tracking, this paper puts forward corresponding suggestions from the perspective of designers. In order to provide experience and inspiration for the practice of participatory design at township level in China.
Key words:  Participatory design  disaster risk  risk accumulation  rural revitalization