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关中窄院生态民居空间风环境优化分析
席鸿1, 汝雯欣1, 马召熙1, 张群2, 朱轶韵1
1.西安理工大学;2.西安建筑科技大学
摘要:
传统民居在营建过程中蕴含着顺应自然的宝贵生态观念,在风环境营造上更是有着因地制宜的设计特点,然而随着时间的推移,传统民居建筑性能逐渐老化和下降,新建民居由于缺乏科学的引导,导致既有民居在室内热舒适和节能方面存在诸多问题。在我国双碳目标的背景下,汲取传统民居的生态智慧,结合现代化技术手段合理利用风环境调节室内热舒适,对降低建筑能耗有着重要的现实意义。本研究从生态视角出发,以关中窄院民居为研究对象,以降低建筑能耗和提升室内热舒适性为目标,模拟分析典型窄院民居室内风环境、热舒适分布情况,总结验证其中蕴含的生态经验和不足,结合现代风环境技术手段,从窄院空间形式、门窗洞口和围护结构气密性方面提出了兼顾夏季通风与冬季防寒的优化措施。结果表明窄院民居院落有着良好的通风效果,然而由于缺乏合理设计导致院落自然风难以进入室内,经过风环境生态优化后,可使夏季室内平均风速增加0.1~0.2 m/s,同时保证了冬季防风,室内热舒适性大幅提升,建筑全年累计能耗下降26.34 kW·h/m2。在考虑周围建筑对典型建筑的遮挡效应后,模拟显示典型民居仍有良好的通风效果。研究结果为关中地区建立生态宜居型民居提供参考基础。
关键词:  窄院民居  风环境  数值模拟  热舒适  生态宜居
DOI:
分类号:TU241.5
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(52078419);陕西省科技厅重点研发计划项目(2023-YBSF-189,2024SF-YBXM-629);陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目(2022JQ-555,2024JC-YBQN-0496);陕西省教育厅智库项目(22JT032);CSC国家公派访问学者项目(202208610089)
Optimization Analysis of Wind Environment in Guanzhong Narrow Courtyard Ecological Residential Space
xihong,ruwenxin,mazhaoxi,zhangqun,zhuyiyun
Abstract:
China's vast territory and vastly different climate conditions have created traditional residential buildings with regional characteristics and simple ecological experiences in different regions. Traditional residential buildings contain valuable ecological concepts that conform to nature in the construction process, and have tailored design characteristics in creating wind environments. However, over time, the performance of traditional residential buildings gradually ages and declines. Due to the lack of scientific guidance, new residential buildings have many problems in indoor thermal comfort and energy conservation. Against the backdrop of China's dual carbon goals, drawing on the ecological wisdom of traditional residential buildings and utilizing modern technological means to regulate indoor thermal comfort through wind environment plays an important role in promoting China's dual carbon strategy goals, inheriting the ecological construction wisdom of traditional residential buildings, and improving indoor thermal comfort. In recent years, the research team has visited representative villages in the Guanzhong area for in-depth investigation and research. Through questionnaire sorting and test data analysis, it was found that buildings in the Guanzhong area have prominent problems of summer humidity and heat. In response to this situation, strengthening natural ventilation can improve indoor thermal comfort environment. This study starts from an ecological perspective, based on the climate characteristics and spatial characteristics of narrow courtyard houses in the Guanzhong region, combined with a large number of questionnaire survey results and testing work, summarizes the typical characteristics of traditional narrow courtyard houses in Guanzhong, and establishes a typical narrow courtyard house model as the research object. With the goal of reducing building energy consumption and improving indoor thermal comfort, this study simulates and analyzes the indoor wind environment and thermal comfort distribution of typical narrow courtyard residential buildings, summarizes and verifies the ecological experience and shortcomings contained therein, and combines modern wind environment technology to optimize the spatial form and door and window openings of typical narrow courtyard residential buildings from the perspective of summer ventilation while maintaining regional characteristics. At the same time, to avoid winter heat loss caused by improved ventilation effect in summer, from the perspective of winter wind protection, an optimization strategy for the airtightness of enclosure structures is proposed to achieve indoor comfort. The main research conclusions are as follows: (1) Simulate and calculate the summer wind speed of typical narrow courtyard houses in the Guanzhong area. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the narrow outdoor courtyard of narrow courtyard houses has good ventilation effect. However, due to the lack of reasonable design, the natural wind in the courtyard is difficult to enter the indoor space. Except for the main room with a weak wind speed of 0.011-0.062 m/s, the other rooms in the narrow courtyard are basically in a calm wind state. This layout is very beneficial for winter building wind protection, but it also leads to poor ventilation inside the room in summer. (2) A wind environment ecological optimization strategy is proposed for typical narrow courtyard residential buildings. After analysis and simulation verification, it can be concluded that a reasonable courtyard layout and door and window positions can ensure good natural ventilation indoors. When the distance between the main room and the wing room is adjusted to 3 meters, the doors and windows of the wing room are arranged at a 90 ° angle, and windows are opened towards the optimized small courtyard. At the same time, external windows are added to the main room and living room walls, which can increase the average indoor wind speed of narrow courtyard residential buildings in summer by 0.1-0.2 m/s; While strengthening indoor ventilation in summer, to avoid heat loss in winter, improving the airtightness of the original enclosure structure can effectively prevent cold air infiltration and resist winter cold winds. Considering the dense layout of residential buildings in Guanzhong Narrow Courtyard, a simulation analysis was conducted on typical buildings under the obstruction of surrounding buildings. The results showed that the group buildings had a certain blocking effect on incoming air. However, the narrow scale of streets and alleys and the shape of narrow courtyards can still introduce natural wind into the interior of the building group. By relying on the internal narrow courtyard wind environment, the ventilation inside the room can be effectively driven. (3) After ecological optimization, the indoor thermal comfort of narrow courtyard residential buildings has been significantly improved. After optimization, the average indoor PMV of narrow courtyard residential buildings in summer decreased from 2.44 to below 1, and the number of indoor thermal comfort hours in winter significantly increased. The average indoor PMV increased from -1.23 to -1.08. (4) After optimization, the cumulative energy consumption of narrow courtyard residential buildings decreased by 26.34 kW · h/m2 throughout the year. Compared with before optimization, the summer cooling load decreased by 5.93 kW · h/m2, and the winter heating load decreased by 13.8 kW · h/m2. This effectively utilizes natural ventilation to reduce building energy consumption, which is of great significance for promoting the ecological process of traditional residential buildings in the Guanzhong region.
Key words:  Narrow Courtyard Residential Buildings  Wind Environment  Numerical Simulation  Thermal Comfort  Ecological Livability