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“境”的起源和历史演变
林广思, 苗行健
华南理工大学
摘要:
“‘境’是风景园林学科重要的元概念”,但目前对于“境”字本身起源、发展和演变介绍非常简略。借助原始材料和经典文献,研究“境”的本字“竟”字从甲骨文到金文、小篆、隶书、楷书的字形演变,发现“人”作为关键要素所起的重要作用,并探究“竟”字最原始的含义,发现 “终止”的核心内涵。“境”延续“竟”的核心意义又加以延申,本义即为“疆界、边界”。后又探讨对中国传统园林产生过重要影响的道家、佛学、诗学三个领域中的“境”的起源、作用和演变过程,发现受这三个领域的影响,“境”化身为无限自由的“道家之境”、主观心识的“佛学之境”、主客融合的“诗学之境”,这些持续陶染风景园林学科之“境”。研究证明,园林之“境”与人有明显的互创性,是主客融合的产物,“境”可以成为更加开放包容的包含时间、空间和人的复合体,将成为风景园林学科独特的“硬核”。
关键词:  风景园林  元概念    
DOI:
分类号:TU986
基金项目:
The origin and historical evolution of “Jing”
Lin Guangsi, Miao Xingjian
Abstract:
“Jing” is an important meta-concept of landscape architecture, but the origin, development and evolution of the word “Jing” is very brief. With the help of the original materials and the classical literature, this paper studies the evolution of the character “Jing”, the original character of “Jing”, from Oracle bone inscription to Jinwen, xiaozhuan, Lishu and regular script, find “person” as a key factor played an important role, and explore the word“Jing” the most original meaning, find the core connotation of ”termination”. “Jing” continues the core meaning of “Jing”, which means “boundary”. Then it discusses the origin, function and evolution of “Jing” in the three fields of Taoism, Buddhism and poetics, which have had an important influence on Chinese traditional gardens, “Jing” turns into “Taoist realm” of infinite freedom, “Buddhist realm” of subjective consciousness, “Poetic realm” of subject-object fusion. It has been proved that the “Jing” of landscape architecture is the product of the fusion of subject and object, and the “Jing” can become a more open and inclusive complex containing time, space and people, will become the landscape architecture discipline unique “hard core”.
Key words:  landscape architecture  meta-concept  Jing  Jing