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河流入海口聚落景观特征研究 ——以文昌东郊半岛椰林聚落为例
刘丽, 杨定海, 陈璞玲, 张瑞
海南大学林学院
摘要:
摘 要:位于海南岛东北角南海之滨的文昌市东郊半岛,由于其独特的河流入海口的自然地理环境与椰林植被耦合聚落形成了极具代表性的“半岛椰林聚落景观”地域性范型,具有极高的研究价值。通过文献查阅与实地调研结合、ArcGIS分析、图式语言等研究方法,分析东郊半岛聚落景观的生成演变历程,总结归纳出东郊半岛聚落景观特征:1)东郊半岛椰林聚落是文昌先民经过长期相土尝水,科学利用河流入海口特殊区位,合理布局人居环境三生空间,并逐渐形成景观秩序的聚居体系,彰显人与聚居环境的智慧互动。2)东郊半岛椰林聚落总体呈现“椰林-聚落-风水塘-农田-聚落-鱼塘-防护林”的景观结构。因为半岛不同区位聚落演变的驱动力的差异,呈现出不同的景观格局特征。岛北形成“港湾-鱼塭-排田-椰林-组团分散式聚落”的扇骨辐射组团“串珠式”聚居景观体系;岛南形成“防风林-椰基鱼塘-带状农田-椰林-带状曲线式聚落”的呈平行带状层叠式“千层饼”聚居景观体系。3)东郊半岛椰林聚落景观是河流入海口聚落景观的典型代表,诠释了区域景观差异与环境特征的深度耦合,其聚落景观形成的自然机理及文化特征对于了解同类型聚落景观及其传承和创新发展有所益。
关键词:  传统聚落  地域性景观  东郊半岛
DOI:
分类号:TU982.29
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Study on the Landscape Characteristics of River Estuary Settlements —Taking the Coconut Forest Settlement in Wenchang Dongjiao Peninsula as an Example
liuli, yangdinghai, chenpuling, zhangrui
Abstract:
Abstract: Located in the northeast corner of Hainan Island, the Dongjiao Peninsula of Wenchang City, on the coast of the South China Sea, due to its unique natural geographic environment of the river estuary, and the coupling settlement of coconut grove vegetation, it is a very?representative?regional?paradigm?of " the?peninsula?coconut?grove?settlement?landscape ", which?has extremely?high?research?value.?Through the combination of literature review and field research, GIS analysis, schema language and other research methods, this paper analyzes the formation and evolution of the settlement landscape of the Dongjiao Peninsula, and summarizes the characteristics of the settlement landscape of the Dongjiao Peninsula: 1) In the Dongjiao Peninsula, the coconut grove settlement is a settlement system in which the ancestors of wenchang have phased soil and tasted water for a long time, scientifically utilize the special location of the river estuary, rationally arranged " Production-Living-Ecology Space " of the habitat environment and gradually formed the landscape order, demonstrating the intelligent interaction between local people and the settlement environment. 2) As a complete geographic unit of the coastal zone, the Dongjiao Peninsula, under the action of tidal waves, sea breeze and sand dunes, its internal landscape elements such as settlements ,coconut groves, farmland and fishponds are based on long-term evolution of human interaction, and gradually formed the landscape structure of " coconut grove - settlement - wind and water ponds - farmland - settlement - fishponds - protection forests ", which is intertwined and overall unified. Because of the differences in the driving forces of settlement evolution in different zones of the peninsula, different landscape patterns are characterized, forming the differences between the north and south settlement landscape systems of the DongJiao Peninsula. Specific differences are shown: The northern part of the island relies on lagoonal-oceanic terrace to form a " bead-type " settlement landscape system of fan-bone radial groups with " harbors, fishpond, rows of rice paddies, coconut groves, and cluster decentralized settlements ";The southern part of the island conforms to the base of the sandy ridges to form a "lasagna" settlement landscape system with parallel belt-like cascades of " windbreak forests, coconut-based fishponds, ribbon farmland, coconut forests, and ribbon curvilinear settlements ". 3) The coconut grove settlement landscape of the Dongjiao Peninsula is a typical representative of the river estuary settlement landscape, which is the result of thousands of years of repeated integration of " people, land and sea ", and interprets the deep coupling of regional landscape differences and environmental characteristics. Under the influence of different hydrology on the north and south sides, the diversified geomorphology is formed, and on the basis of establishing the regional environment of ecological - production - life , a diversified way of local settlement utilization is formed through the intelligent adjustment of the shore base and the surrounding environment, and in the long-term coupling and feedback process, the settlement landscape system of the Dongjiao Peninsula reaches a harmonious and stable state. The natural mechanism and cultural characteristics of the settlement landscape formation are the regional expression of human-earth wisdom interaction in the habitat environment, and also the basis for establishing regional cultural identity, which is beneficial to the understanding of the same type of settlement landscapes and their inheritance and innovative development.
Key words:  Traditional Settlements  Regional landscape  Dongjiao Peninsula