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城市水岸空间类型的压力恢复性比较研究
聂玮1, 张瑞麟1, 吕坤1, 刘书昊2, 李罡1
1.安徽建筑大学;2.日本国立千叶大学
摘要:
城市青年群体的身心压力已成为城市发展中亟待解决的难题。既往的大量研究证实了水岸空间对城市青年群体的心理压力恢复具有正相效益。但在微观尺度下不同水岸空间构成特征对压力恢复性的影响差异及其工作机制缺乏深入研究。根据压力恢复性理论与相关研究,归纳并总结出自然草坡型、人工护栏型、人工亲水型以及混合型等4种水岸空间类型。并应用虚拟现实技术构建VR场景,开展“VR视觉—生理反馈”交互实验,采集30位被试者的即时皮肤电(EDA,Electrodermal Activity)反馈数据,揭示了不同水岸空间构成特征对压力恢复性的影响差异。结果表明:1)亲水性强的水岸空间对压力的缓解效益更为显著;2)经过精心设计的混合型水岸空间具有最佳的压力恢复性,而人工护栏型水岸缺少显著的压力恢复性证据;3)未发现自然草坡型和人工亲水型水岸空间的压力恢复性效益存在显著差异。面对不断深入的城市水岸空间人本主义思考和发展范式研究,未来相关研究宜从宏观尺度的“规划模式”理论研究,转向包括水岸空间在内的“场景营造”应用研究。以有效提升城市水岸空间规划建设的实践深度与应用效率。
关键词:  城市水岸空间  虚拟现实  生理实验  压力恢复
DOI:
分类号:TU 986
基金项目:安徽省自然科学基金项目“基于出行时空行为的城市绿地空间慢行机能优化方法研究”(编号:1908085QE209);安徽省住房城乡建设科技计划项目“EOD 模式的城市更新与水生态资源开发运营一体化技术集成研究”(编号:2022-YF094)
A comparative study of stress resilience of urban waterfront space types
NIE Wei,ZHANG Ruilin,LV Kun,LIU Shuhao,LI Gang
Abstract:
The physical and psychological stress of urban youth groups have become an urgent issue in urban development. A large number of previous studies have confirmed that the positive benefits of waterfront spaces on the recovery of psychological stress in urban youth groups. However, there is still a lack of in-depth research on the differences in the effects of different waterfront space characteristics on the recovery of stress and their working mechanisms at the micro-scale. According to the theory of stress recovery and related previous researches, four types of waterfront spaces were summarized, including natural grass slope type, artificial fence type, artificial hydrophilic type, and mixed type. A virtual reality technology was applied to construct VR scenes, and a VR visual-physiological feedback interaction experiments were carried out to collect instantaneous electrodermal activity (EDA) from 30 subjects as sampling replications. The VR visual-physiological feedback experiment was conducted to collect instantaneous electrodermal activity (EDA) feedback data from the 30 subjects, which revealed the differences in the effects of different waterfront space characteristics on stress recovery. The results showed that 1) the hydrophilic waterfront space has significant stress-relieving benefits. Subjects in all four waterfront space scenarios showed a trend of decreasing stress levels, confirming the recovery benefits of urban waterfront spaces on psychological stress. The stress recovery efficiency of the scenarios with different degrees of hydrophilicity was different. The mixed type, artificial hydrophilic waterfront and natural grass slope type had significant stress-relieving effects compared to the artificial fence type waterfront. This suggests that hydrophilic waterfronts could have a high sense of restoration and relaxation, compared to the waterfront spaces that lack open space and isolate pathways for human-water interaction. Therefore, it is important to increase the number of water-friendly spaces in both planning and design, and to emphasize the need to satisfy people's interaction with water. 2) Well-designed hybrid waterfronts had the best stress recovery, whereas man-made fences were lack in stress recovery. The hybrid waterfronts were more restorative than natural grassy slopes and artificial hydrophilic waterfronts, suggesting that grassy slopes or hard waterfronts with a single shoreline form had limited restorative potential. Additionally, this also demonstrated that the stress recovery effect was not linearly related to the size of the green space. In additionally, well-designed hybrid waterfront spaces had the best stress recovery. Therefore, the design layout of the waterfront space should focus on diversified treatment, and the green vegetation environment should be controlled within a reasonable range. Mixing the design of both and above elements could help to enhance the restoration benefits for visitors. 3) The difference in the restorative benefits of stress between the natural grass slope type and the artificial hydrophilic waterfront space was not obvious. The restorative benefits of natural grassy slopes were lower than those of artificial hydrophilic waterfronts, which may be due to the fact that artificial hydrophilic waterfronts had a certain design that makes them more attractive to youth groups. It may also be due to the lack of spatial utilization in the natural grassy slopes type of waterfront. Subjective questionnaire data is an important research method, while objective physiological data can provide quantitative support, using a combination of subjective and objective data of the experimental method can be mutually corroborated, resulting in a more scientific and rigorous argumentation of the experimental results for the design of the waterfront space to provide qualitative and quantitative reference basis. In the face of the ever-deepening humanistic thinking and development paradigm research on urban waterfront space, it is necessary to shift the focus of future research from macro-scale theoretical research on "planning mode" to applied research on "scene creation", including waterfront space, in order to effectively enhance the practical depth and application efficiency of urban waterfront space planning and construction. It is recommended to shift the focus of future research from the theoretical study of macro-scale "planning model" to the applied study of "scene creation", including waterfront space, in order to effectively improve the practical depth and application efficiency of urban waterfront space planning and construction.
Key words:  Urban Waterfront Spaces  Virtual Reality  Physiological Experiments  Stress Recovery