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新加坡城市树木保护及精细化管理策略研究
李颖怡1, 王世福2, 刘明欣3
1.华南理工大学建筑学院,博士研究生;2.( 通讯作者):华南理工大学建筑学院, 教授,archcity@scut.edu.cn;3.华南理工大学建筑学院,讲师
摘要:
城市树木的保护管理是城市绿化的关 键性内容。新加坡城市树木保护及精细化管理 归纳为贯穿城市树木全生命周期,具有复杂适应 性和高效能的“综合治理”模式。主要策略体 现在战略目标引领和政府主导市场参与的管理 机制,法规体系、城市空间政策到实施的全过 程管理,树艺师国际认证和人才执业制度保障, 专业化和数字化技术应用的精细化日常管理, 智慧高效能的城市树木信息管理系统支撑,多 元化社会管理与公众参与机制等方面。对比我 国与新加坡的差异,对我国城市树木保护管理 提出战略化目标、法制化保障、系统化管理、职 业化建设、智慧化支持、多元化公众参与的“治 理”策略建议。
关键词:  城市树木  树木保护  精细化管理  城 市治理
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20240310
分类号:
基金项目:广州市哲学社会科学规划2024年度市委市政府重大 课题(2024GZZD28);广东省自然科学基金面上项目 (2021A1515012061);亚热带建筑科学国家重点实 验室开放课题(2020ZB11)
Research on urban trees conservation and delicacy management strategies in Singapore
LI Yingyi,WANG Shifu,LIU Mingxin
Abstract:
The conservation and management of urban trees is the key content of urban greening. In this paper, Singapore’s urban tree conservation and management model is summarized as a “comprehensive management” model that runs through the whole life cycle of urban trees, the daily management of trees and the whole process of project development, with the government leading the market participation, and based on the principles of “four governance”, including rule of law, fine governance, people’s governance and intelligent governance, with complex adaptability and high efficiency. The conservation and management of urban trees benefit from the early support of Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, and the long-term clear vision of green space, urban greening development strategies at various stages, and the strategic guidance of tree conservation and management goals. In addition, under the overall management of the National Parks Board, a semi-official agency with legislative and enforcement functions, the management structure of multiple public sectors is coordinated, and the private sector provides innovative services and assumes service responsibilities in a fully competitive choice in the market. In terms of legal conservation, Singapore stipulates the relevant management regulations for trees such as Tree Conservation Areas, Heritage Way Green Buffer, Heritage Tree, Vacant Land and Roadside Greenery. The space for the growth of trees is reserved for the medium and long-term development of the city through urban planning and control at all levels. Conservation management of trees during the most critical project development processes is achieved through Development Control(DC), Building Plan(BP) and Certification of Statutory Completion(CSC). In terms of the conservation of the talent practice system, the international certification system for arborist has been established. Certified Arborist plays the role of “tree doctor”, working throughout the whole process from the requirements, decision-making and evaluation feedback of tree management, responsible for tree identification, tree inspection, diagnosis, conservation and construction supervision. In the delicacy daily management of trees, it reflects the specialization of tree planting and transplantation, daily management, safety management, health management and the application of digital technology. Since 1990, Nparks has established a tree information registry system, in which each newly planted tree under its management has a separate identity code and a record. Different trees are managed according to their importance, focusing on trees that are more than 15 years old. The timely updating of information system data into professional judgment provides an important premise for monitoring, preventing and eliminating all kinds of dangerous situations and coordinating the spatial contradictions of urban development. The adoption of safety equipment and practice standards, including soil, species selection, infrastructure, tree planting techniques and improvements in high-tech technology help to improve tree planting programs and optimize tree life cycle management. Intensive investment in innovative technology research and development drives increasingly refined tree management. In terms of urban tree information management system support, Singapore has built a smart and efficient tree management module based on the park green space management system platform, and a tree module of the public service platform public website, tree network and mobile application client. Nparks relies on OneMap’s digital information management platform Maven to establish apark green space management system, which allows different organizations to share and review the planning and design of different projects in the same area, forming a working mechanism for management collaboration and efficient processing of tree management information. Nparks public website https:// www.nparks.gov.sg/ through propaganda and natural urban development philosophy and implementation strategy, provide heritage tree and nomination, information available to the public for reading query and interactive; The Singapore Tree Network https://www.Trees.sg/ was officially launched to the public in March 2018, marking the advent of an era of in-depth participation and interactive sharing of trees. In terms of diversified social management and public participation mechanisms, Singapore has established an institutional management system led by registered charities and institutions of public nature (IPC) Garden City Foundation. The One Million Trees Movement, launched in 2020, will mobilize efforts to add one million trees to Singapore over the next decade. Singapore emphasizes that public ecological education, with particular emphasis on cultivating the ecological awareness of the next generation, encourages community nurseries, students and youth groups such as Youth@SGNature to participate extensively in the cultivation of local trees and planting activities, and creates diverse ways to develop the management skills of natural city youth. By comparing the difference of urban tree management system between China and Singapore, it is concluded that there is insufficient awareness of overall tree protection management in China. There is lack of technical standard control for tree planting and environmental space management in implementation, and lack of professional and technical personnel services in line with international standards. Daily maintenance management, advanced technology application and talent team construction need to be improved. There is also lack of unified data platform and intelligent management system wide application. It’s insufficient participation in public management. Finally, the paper summarizes the full text and proposes that China’s tree conservation and management work will also move towards the direction of “comprehensive management” of linkage and coordination in the future, and draws on the experience of Singapore to put forward “governance” strategies and suggestions for the protection and management of urban trees in China, including strategic objectives, legal guarantee, systematic management, professional construction, intelligent support and diversified public participation.
Key words:  urban trees  trees conservation  delicacy management  urban governance