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基于生态保护的海岛型乡镇多情景规划探讨 ——以福州市琅岐镇为例
文超祥1, 陈碧菲2, 吕一平3
1.( 通讯作者):厦门大学建筑与土木工程 学院,教授,2476191940@qq.com;2.厦门大学建筑与土木工程学院,硕士研 究生;3.同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,博士研究生
摘要:
海岛是陆海交界的特殊生态区域,随 着城市化进程的推进,海岛面临的生态风险日 益增加。基于福建省海岛的调查研究,针对海岛 发展存在较大不确定性的现实背景,以海岛型 乡镇为切入点,提出了“生态问题识别—情景预 设—情景模拟—动态兼容”的多情景海岛空间 规划方法,从而适应不同生态水平的海岛开发 利用要求,避免城镇发展造成海岛生态环境的 严重破坏。并以位于河口的海岛型乡镇——琅岐 镇为例进行实证研究。在此基础上,从规划修 改与调整、规划衔接与传导以及规划弹性与时 序等方面,探讨了基于生态保护的多情景动态兼 容规划的具体应用。
关键词:  海岛  乡镇  生态  空间规划  情景 模拟
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230117
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(52078445)
Discussion on Multi-Scenario Planning of Island Townships Based on EcologicalProtection: Taking Langqi Township, Fuzhou City as an Example
WEN Chaoxiang,CHEN Bifei,LYU Yiping
Abstract:
With the rapid urbanization process, the development activities in the islands are gradually becoming more intensive and the ecological risks they confront are increasing, making the uncertainty of the development of the islands more obvious. Despite being small in size, a large number of island townships in coastal areas occupy a large proportion of the land-sea interface. In comparison to islands at the county level or above and village islands, island townships have distinctive geographical characteristics such as significant land-sea interaction, rapid socio- economic development, and relatively independent and fragile ecosystems. In the face of this special area, how to resolve the relationship between man and nature in a scientific and reasonable manner, and to meet the actual needs of social and economic development while effectively addressing the ecological problems of the island, has become a huge challenge in the current planning process of the island. Therefore, based on the survey and research of Fujian Province's islands, this paper takes island townships as the starting point and investigates the multi-scenario spatial planning method of "ecological problem identification-scenario predetermination-scenario simulation-dynamic compatibility" through the spatial simulation of multi-scenario development patterns based on different ecological levels. This is done in order to sort out the main ecological problems of island townships, so as to provide a basis for the coordination of spatial planning based on the ecological safety of islands. In the spatial planning of island townships based on ecological protection, the first step is to analyse resource and ecological characteristics, as well as ecological safety trends and potential factors for the purpose of identifying ecological safety issues and reasonably determining ecological protection indicators. Depending on the variations in geographical characteristics, different types of island townships have varied ecological issues. Secondly, according to the resource endowments of island townships and the main ecological problems they face, the ecological and socio-economic benefits of island townships are considered comprehensively, and multiple scenarios of development patterns are predetermined according to three strategic ecological security objectives, including strict ecological protection, balancing economic development and ecological protection, and ensuring ecological bottom lines, and corresponding spatial development mechanisms are established. Among them, strict ecological protection is a high ecological security scenario, with ecological protection as the primary objective and the highest level of control over ecological resources, environment, and space. The scenario that balances economic development and ecological protection places a great emphasis on balancing economic development and ecological protection and is a medium ecological security scenario. The scenario that ensures the ecological bottom line places more emphasises on the sustainable and rapid development of island townships and does not impose too many restrictions on the development of the townships, except for the ecological bottom line that must be guaranteed. The scenarios are then combined with the pre-determined conditions, land suitability analysis, and ecological sensitivity analysis, to integrate ecologically critical areas and key areas for flexible control of planning in space and time, so as to derive spatial planning solutions for differentscenarios, and to guide the spatial planning layout through the integration of "multi-scenario dynamic and compatible" planning solutions. Finally, in order to fulfil the requirements of the uncertainty of the development of island townships, the identification and delineation of restricted areas and key variable areas are utilised to dynamically control the territorial space, thereby enhancing the compatibility of planning. Meanwhile, this paper takes Langqi Township, an island township located in the estuary, as an example for empirical research, which has a typical land- sea interaction and a high degree of complexity, variability, and uncertainty between land, sea, and air. Due to its location in the estuary where salt and fresh water meet, Langqi Township is faced with ecological problems such as land-based pollution discharge, reduction of natural shoreline, and deterioration of sea substrate. Based on the multi-scenario development model of spatial planning for island townships presented in this paper, the main control points and spatial planning guidelines for Lanqi Township are identified. By coupling the ecological resources and ecological environment of Langqi Township, a strictly controlled and prohibited development and construction area is designated as a restricted conversion zone for the scenario simulation, so as to further obtain the simulation results of the land use layout of Langqi Township under different levels of ecological safety. The analysis of the scenarios under the multi-scenario simulation was integrated, and the final designation of a dynamically compatible scenario for Langqi township was based on the balance between economic development and ecological protection. On this basis, the timing and type of development and utilisation of the construction control key areas and the coastline of Langqi Township are adjusted to take changes in major conditions into consideration, which consists of ecological protection status values and policy directions, so as to effectively coordinate the spatial control requirements under different scenarios. Finally, in terms of planning modification and adjustment, planning articulation and transmission, and planning flexibility and timing, the paper discusses the application of dynamic and compatible planning for a variety of scenarios based on ecological protection.
Key words:  Islands  Township  Ecology  Spatial Planning  Scenario Simulation