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建筑学视阈下城市交通节点及其空间综合效益研究综述
黎柔含1, 褚冬竹2,3, 阳 蕊4
1.重庆大学建筑城规学院,新加坡国立大 学,博士研究生;2.( 通讯作者):重庆市设计院有限公司, 总建筑师;3.重庆大学建筑城规学院,教 授,博士生导师,c.dz@vip.163.com;4.重庆大学建筑城规学院,博士研究生
摘要:
城市交通节点作为城市空间结构体系的 关键点,具有公共交通和城市空间两个属性,在 高度集聚和流动的各类活动和资源的牵引下, 成为城市的关键“效益源”。进一步厘清TOD理 念影响下,具有增效价值的城市关键地段及其 发展标准的理论内涵、研究进展及经验启示, 是未来该领域实践与研究的基础。通过界定城 市交通节点这一研究对象,归纳其空间增效发展 的实践历程以及相关研究在“设施—空间”触 媒影响表征、“行为—空间”互动反馈原理、空 间增效开发更新行动的模式与经验等方面的成 果;系统阐释建筑学及其交叉学科视角下交通节 点空间综合效益的研究进展,总结该话题未来 “关联式”“制宜式”“立场式”的研究趋势。可在城市公共交通与立体空间一体化发展这类多学 科问题的探索中,为建筑学领域理论和实践的突破指明重心并提供借鉴。
关键词:  城市交通节点  建筑学  基础设施  空间综合效益  空间增效发展
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230114
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(52078070);中央高校基本科 研业务费研究生科研创新项目(2018CDYJSY0055); 重庆市研究生科研创新项目(CYB18054);国家建设高 水平大学公派研究生项目(201906050073)
Research Review of Urban Traffic Node and Its Spatial Comprehensive Benefit from thePerspective of Architecture
LI Rouhan,CHU Dongzhu,YANG Rui
Abstract:
As the key point of urban spatial structure system, urban traffic nodes have two attributes of public transportation and urban space, and become the key “benefit source” of the city under the traction of all kinds of activities and resources that are highly gathering and flowing. Further clarifying the theoretical connotation, research progress and experience enlightenment of key urban areas with potential for benefit growth and their development standards under the influence of TOD concept will be the basis of future practice and research in this field. Firstly, this paper explains the basic concepts of urban traffic node and its spatial comprehensive benefit from the perspective of architecture: the urban traffic node includes buildings, infrastructures and external public areas, which are in a certain influence range around a traffic line/road interchange point or a station. It not only contains the horizontal space around the “point”, but also covers the vertical space “domain” above and below ground. From the perspective of architecture and urban planning, urban benefit can be directly reflected as specific spatial influencing factors and characteristics. The spatial comprehensive benefit of urban traffic node includes not only the self- benefits generated by transportation facility construction, but also the land development benefits, commercial retail benefits, people’s livelihood benefits, environmental protection and energy saving efficiency, etc. driven by transportation mode. Therefore, the comprehensive benefit of urban traffic node can be divided into five sub-items such as traffic benefit, economic benefit, social benefit, environmental benefit and cultural benefit, which are closely and subtly related. Secondly, according to the differences in the leading transport facilities of urban transport nodes, the research emphases of urban comprehensive transport hub areas, urban rail transit station and its influence areas, and areas where important roads and bridges intersect are different. This paper summarizes the research related to benefit-oriented spatial development of urban traffic nodes in the aspects of catalysis effect characteristics of “facilities & space”, interactive feedback principles of “behavior & space”, and models and experiences of benefit-oriented spatial development practice. Then, by discriminating the generalized concept of spatial benefit of urban traffic node, this paper systematically explains the research progress on the spatial comprehensive benefit of traffic node from the perspective of architecture and its cross-disciplines, and summarizes three future research trends: 1) “correlation” research trend: comprehensive benefit-oriented spatial development will induce some correlation problems and involve some correlation factors; 2) “adaption” research trend: the research perspective of the spatial comprehensive benefit of traffic node is changeable. The subitem of the spatial comprehensive benefit of traffic node is dynamic. The realization path of the spatial comprehensive benefit of traffic node is hierarchical. From the perspective of different stakeholders, there are differences in the measurement of special comprehensive benefit of traffic node from different stakeholders’ perspectives, and the tradeoff process is global; 3) “standpoint” research trend: the position that the development of urban traffic node only gives priority to economic benefit has been changed. The comprehensive benefit of traffic node is actually affected by the“comprehensive cost” and “comprehensive income” of construction and operation. The research not only needs to deeply discuss the specific benefit subitems including economy, society, environment, culture and transportation, but also needs to analyze the internal correlation among the subitems in this system. In a word, on the basis of clarifying that comprehensive benefit is one of the important targets of urban development, this study takes the key areas with great potential for benefit growth, such as urban traffic nodes, as the research object. Through in-depth analysis of relevant researches at home and abroad, the theoretical research value of urban traffic node and its spatial comprehensive benefit in the field of architecture is clarified. The previous research results are summarized from two aspects: spatial development mechanism (benefit-oriented spatial development of traffic node) and spatial evaluation and optimization (system evaluation and design optimization for spatial comprehensive benefit of traffic node). In the future, it can point out the focus and provide reference for the breakthrough of theory and practice in the field of architecture in the exploration of multi-disciplinary issues such as the integration of urban public transport and three-dimensional space.
Key words:  Urban Traffic Node  Architecture  Infrastructure  Spatial Comprehensive Benefits  Benefit-Oriented Spatial Development