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沿海非传统农区县域聚落空间演化研究 —— 以浙江省宁海县为例
陈 春1, 曹 鑫2
1.( 通讯作者):重庆交通大学智慧城市学院, 教授,博士生导师,chenchun@pku.edu.cn;2.重庆交通大学智慧城市学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
县域是城乡融合发展的重要载体。随 着中国城镇化进程的加快,沿海非传统农区县 域聚落空间也发生了剧烈变化。本研究以浙江 宁海县为例,综合运用中心地理论、位序规模法 则、分形维数等理论方法,分析1990—2020年 浙江宁海县域聚落空间演化特征。结果发现:宁 海县域聚落空间演化规律与典型农作区差异明 显,趋向于城市发展规律,但因为县域人口和经 济发展的局限性,与城市特征仍有差距;聚落规 模沿中心轴线高核聚集,三门湾区点状高核突 出,镇乡职能明确,形成了较为稳定的多中心网 络等级结构;同时宁海县域聚落通过四种演化 方式向外扩张。探究非传统农区县域聚落规模 分布的演变规律,构建聚落等级体系,对县域聚 落体系的优化和城乡融合发展具有重要意义。
关键词:  非传统农区  县域聚落  规模体系  空 间演化  宁海县
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20230105
分类号:
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD1100300)
Study on the Spatial Evolution of Settlements in Coastal Non-Traditional AgriculturalAreas: A Case Study of Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province
CHEN Chun,CAO Xin
Abstract:
After China entered the stage of rapid urbanization, urban development has become faster and faster while rural areas have declined. The contradiction between urban and rural dual structure has deepened. This dual structure would be solved by balancing the allocation of urban and rural resources and promoting the integrated development of urban and rural areas. The counties are the most appropriate geographical space to accelerate urban-rural integration. The scientific and reasonable county settlement systems are significant to the development of the new- typed urbanization and rural revitalization in China. Studying the spatial evolution law of county settlements has important academic value and practical significance for the optimization of the county settlements system. There are more mature empirical studies at the city scale and less studies at the county scale. Compared with inland areas, economic activities and social development are more active in coastal areas. With the rapid industrialization and urbanization, the rural system of coastal areas has changed dramatically, resulting in the reconstruction of rural settlement. At the same time, affected by the regional conditions, economic development, policies and other factors, the urban and rural boundaries of coastal counties are weakened. Coastal areas are not only important carriers of economic development, but also hot spots of population mobility. In particular, the counties in the eastern coastal areas are important research nodes in the transformation from rural areas to urban areas. For example, the coastal areas in Zhejiang Province, relying on superior ecological resources, have witnessed the rapid development of modern aquaculture and rural leisure tourism industries, the transformation of traditional agriculture, and continuous decline of traditional agricultural settlement space. Therefore, the study of the evolution process and agglomeration characteristics of county settlements in coastal non-traditional agricultural areas is helpful to understand the urban-rural integration development at the county level. Taking Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province, as an example, this study analyzed the spatial evolution characteristics of settlements in Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province, from 1990 to 2020, using the central place theory, the rank-size rule, fractal dimension and other theoretical methods. The results showed that the spatial evolution law of the coastal non-traditional farming areas tends to be like the law of the urban areas, but there was still a gap between them due to the limitation of county population and economic development. The settlement in Ninghai County clustered along the central axis with high cores and the relatively stable multi-center network hierarchy has formed. During this period, the settlements of Ninghai County expanded outward through four evolutionary ways. As a non-traditional agricultural area, Ninghai County was influenced by agricultural modernization and the development of rural leisure tourism. There was less surplus agricultural labor force in the county, and the labor force distribution was unbalanced. The spatial differences of population and labor force directly affected the evolution of the spatial distribution of county settlements. Industrialization and agricultural modernization leaded to the transformation of rural functions. The farmers’ lifestyle and living locations have changed accompanied by the rapidvariation of economic structure and employment structure. With the transformation of rural functions and the acceleration of population mobility, the size of agriculturally based settlements gradually decreased, and some small-scale rural settlements even disappeared. The rural settlements, which aimed at agricultural modernization, characteristics agriculture, eco-tourism and industry, have gradually formed and expanded. These elements of modernization would certainly affect the temporal and spatial evolution of county settlements, forming an evolution law different from the historical evolution trend. In terms of the spatial evolution of county settlements, coastal non-traditional agricultural areas were quite different from traditional agricultural areas, owing to the impact of their different industrial structure, location conditions, policy supports, etc. The contribution of this paper was to explore the evolution law of the spatial distribution of county settlements in coastal non-traditional rural areas, and analyze the hierarchical system of settlements, which was of great significance and practical value for the optimization of the county settlements system and the integration of urban and rural development.
Key words:  Non-traditional Farming Area  County Settlements  Scale System  Spatial Evolution  Ninghai County