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当代观演场景构成视角下的古典园林空间模式
曹宇超, 胡一可, 师晓龙
天津大学
摘要:
园林观演活动在历史演进过程中得以延续,成为与园林空间紧密结合的活动类型,由此引发对园林空间与观演活动耦合关系的思考。基于园林当代观演的场景构成分析,从“演”“观”及“观-演互动”三类行为的空间需求出发,挖掘与之对应“景观舞台建构”“视觉画面塑造”“视线结构控制”的园林营造内在机制,以空间要素和组织规则建立园林空间模式语言表达式。通过图解的方法提出园林中线形、面域、复合的景观舞台建构模式,并从层次媒介、中心补白、背景参照三方面提取园林景观构造中的视觉画面构造模式,同时归纳出园林空间布局中层状分离、扇式内聚、环形包裹的视线结构控制模式,提出对园林空间与观演活动互馈模式的新认知,以期建构场景构成视角下古典园林空间的当代转换途径。
关键词:  观演活动  场景构成  古典园林  空间模式
DOI:
分类号:TU-024
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Spatial pattern of classical gardens from the perspective of contemporary performance scene composition
CAO Yuchao, HU Yike, SHI Xiaolong
Abstract:
Existing classical gardens are not only static objective entities, behavioral events and character activities are also an essential part of the classical gardens, in which the performance activities are closely integrated with the garden space type of activity.?Classical garden performance activities originated from the ritual system, followed by the rise of hedonistic and finally tending to art, in the process of historical evolution to continue and in the contemporary needs of new forms of expression.?Aesthetic and artistic descriptions dominate existing research?on classical gardens and performance activities and lack exploration at the operational level of garden space.?Therefore, from the perspective of "behavior-space" interaction, this study focuses on the coupling mechanism between garden space and performance activities. Based on the analysis of the scene composition of the performance activities, this paper discusses the method of constructing the spatial pattern of classical gardens under the demand of the performance activities to build a modern way of transforming the language of gardening at the level of design methodology. In the composition of the scene of the performance?activity, the behavior of participation contains three levels: first, the actor "performing", second, the audience "viewing", and third, the "viewing-performing interaction". Thus, revisiting garden design in terms of behaviorally derived spatial needs, this paper categorizes the garden patterns that influence the composition of the scene of performance activities into three groups: the stage of the landscape constructed by bodily reference, the visual image produced by the pictorial set, the structure of sight in the context of a theatrical experience. Firstly, analogous to the four types of constituent elements in the stage space, namely, area, path, fulcrum, and transformation, the study regards landscape stage construction as the process of spatial hold on the body to advance the scene narrative, and through the method of space graphics, it proposes three modes of landscape stage construction in the garden, namely linear, surface domain, and composite?state; Secondly, based on the relationship between the scene and the construction of the picture in the creation of visual scenery, it is proposed that the visual effect of the contemporary garden performance activities are based on the shaping of the layers, centers, and backgrounds in the visual picture through the natural landscape and building interface, so as to produce a pictorial visual effect similar to that of the stage set, and then derive the three ways of shaping the visual picture : The "frame" is to strengthen the perception of the depth of the visual space by adjusting the levels of the picture, the "point" is to create the visual center by controlling the whole picture with the help of the main scene, and the "screen" is a scene that reinforces the environment as a reference system, activating the "figure-ground" relationship by emphasizing the limited elements of the stage background. Finally, we analyze the layout characteristics of the classical garden space that expresses visual constraints through "seeing and being seen", consider the spatial form of performing arts with the comprehensive vision of "viewing-performing", and express the organization of sight lines, viewpoints and focuses in the structural relationship of "viewing-performing" through the method of space graphics, and summarizes the structural control modes of the line of sight in the layout of garden space, including layer-like separation, fan-type cohesion, and ring-type wrapping. Based on the perspective of "behavior-space" mutual feedback, the study reveals the coupling mechanism between performance activities and garden space from three aspects: body reference, pictorial scenery, and theatrical experience, and proposes three garden space modes, namely, landscape stage construction, visual picture shaping, and sight structure organization.?On the one hand, this study improves the understanding of the narrative capacity of classical gardens. It explores the value of the place experience of the garden space in accommodating behavioral activities, which contributes to the sustainable development of cultural heritage.?On the other hand, it also builds a possible way for the contemporary transformation of the classical garden space vocabulary, combining the garden space with the current needs of the performance space through a clear event theme, which provides a reference for the design of the performance space in the landscape environment.
Key words:  PerformanceAnd Viewing Activities  Scenario Formation  Classical Garden  Spatial Pattern