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基于路径规划数据与RF-SHAP算法的湘西州乡村教育设施可达性及其影响因素研究
李光宇, 丁国胜, 何韶瑶, 屈野, 张梦淼
湖南大学建筑与规划学院
摘要:
教育设施可达性是表征乡村地区教育水平的重要维度。以湘西土家族苗族自治州为例,基于高德地图开放平台路径规划数据服务,建构一个获取区域内“村庄-教育设施”的最短路径时间的系统运行方案,精准、高效测度乡村地区教育设施可达性水平。运用克里金插值、空间自相关等方法分析乡村地区教育设施可达性水平的空间格局总体特征和空间集聚特征,运用随机森林模型与SHAP方法(RF-SHAP算法)探索设施可达性影响因素及非线性关系。结果表明:湘西乡村教育设施可达性总体水平欠佳;在各县域中形成了以县城中心向外围逐渐降低的乡村教育设施可达性水平空间分布特征且集聚特征差异显著;其关键影响因素主要包括人口密度、建设用地比率和平均高程,反映了城镇化水平与自然环境特征对可达性水平具有非线性影响。研究对推动实现脱贫地区城乡公共服务均等化具有重要理论与现实意义。
关键词:  路径规划  RF-SHAP算法  乡村教育设施  可达性  影响因素
DOI:
分类号:TU984
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
A Study on the Accessibility of Rural Educational Facilities and Its Influencing Factors in Xiangxi State Based on Direction API and RF-SHAP Algorithm
LI Guangyu, DING Guosheng, HE shaoyao, QU Ye, ZHANG Mengmiao
Abstract:
In the context of China's new urbanization, the supply and demand situation of rural basic education, which is an important part of urban and rural basic public services, is constantly changing, and there is a structural imbalance between supply and demand of some rural educational facilities. Measuring and evaluating the accessibility of educational facilities in rural areas can accurately grasp the level of supply and demand of rural education, which is of great significance in promoting the equalization of basic public services in urban and rural areas. Taking Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture as an example, we measured the accessibility level of educational facilities in rural areas based on Amap Direction API, analyzed the overall spatial pattern and spatial agglomeration characteristics of the accessibility level of educational facilities in rural areas by using Kriging interpolation and spatial autocorrelation, and explored the influencing factors and nonlinear relationships of facility accessibility by using random forest model and SHAP method. The results of the study provide data support for practical work such as special planning of public service facilities in national territory space, which can effectively promote the development of urban and rural education equivalence. Firstly, based on the direction API data, a system operation scheme for obtaining the shortest path time is constructed by drawing on the relevant scripting language writing method, so as to extract and analyze the accessibility level of rural educational facilities in Xiangxi. According to the accessibility time specified in the layout standards of educational facilities, the accessibility level of each type of facility is divided into levels, and the overall distribution of the accessibility level of each type of facility is obtained, on the basis of which the Kriging interpolation method is used to analyze the overall characteristics of the spatial pattern of the accessibility level of the rural educational facilities. The results show that the overall level of accessibility of rural educational facilities in Xiangxi is poor, and its spatial pattern has obvious differentiation characteristics. Secondly, the spatial autocorrelation (including global Moran index and local Moran index) was used to analyze the spatial clustering characteristics of the accessibility level of rural educational facilities. The results show that there is significant clustering of similar areas with similar levels of accessibility of educational facilities in rural areas of Xiangxi. The areas with higher accessibility levels are mainly concentrated in the centers of Jishou City and Huayuan County, while the areas with lower accessibility levels are mainly concentrated in Guzhang and Yongshun Counties in the eastern part of Xiangxi Prefecture. In terms of the degree of agglomeration, kindergartens have the strongest degree of spatial agglomeration, followed by middle schools, and elementary school are the weakest. Finally, based on the existing studies and the characteristics of the study area, combined with the availability of data, multiple factors characterizing the level of economic and social development and the natural environment were selected, and the Random Forest Model and the SHAP algorithm were used to comprehensively detect the factors influencing the level of accessibility of rural educational facilities in western Xiangxi and their nonlinear relationships. The results show that the key factors influencing the accessibility of educational facilities in rural areas of Xiangxi mainly include population density, the proportion of construction land and average elevation, and that the level of urbanization and natural environment characteristics have nonlinear effects on the accessibility level, such as the threshold effect. In the future, we can further explore measures and paths to narrow the gap between urban and rural education levels and promote the equalization of urban and rural educational facilities on a county basis.
Key words:  Direction API, RF-SHAP algorithm, rural educational facilities, accessibility, influencing factors