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交易成本视角下生态线内社区的改造困境和策略——以深圳为例
杨林川,周松柏,郭源园,林浩韬,刘吉祥,许旺土
1.香港大学建筑学院;2.厦门大学城市规划系;3.香港中文大学社会科学院;4.中国城市规划设计研究院上海分院
摘要:
生态控制线是生态空间管控的重要举措之一,也是保护城市生态环境和提升生态环境质量的有效手段。但是,由于复杂的产权纠纷和历史遗留问题,它的划定在实际操作过程中面临着诸多挑战。妥善处理生态线内已建社区和合理进行社区改造成为重要议题。本文以深圳市为例,系统梳理生态线内社区的特征,并引入交易成本的概念,分析生态线内社区改造过程中政府、社区、居民和开发商等利益主体的成本与收益,指出生态线内社区改造的难点在于交易成本过高以及收益与成本缺口巨大,并在此基础上提出一系列针对性的改造策略,以期更好地推进生态线内社区改造,逐步完成生态修复工作,更好实现生态价值与社会经济价值,并为其他城市提供借鉴和参考。
关键词:  生态控制线  社区改造  交易成本  公众参与  城市蔓延
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The Transition Dilemma and Strategies of Communities within Shenzhen Ecological Control Line
Yang Linchuan1, Zhou Songbai2, Guo Yuanyuan3, Lin Haotao4,5, Liu Jixiang1, Xu Wangtu2
1.Faculty of Architecture, the University of Hong Kong;2.Department of Urban Planning, Xiamen University;3.Chinese University of Hong Kong;4.China Academy of Urban Planning &5.Design
Abstract:
Ecological control line is a crucial tool for ecological space management. It is also an effective measure for environmental conservation and improvement in urban areas, preventing cities from expanding beyond their pre-set boundaries. China pioneered its ecological control line in Shenzhen in 2005. Since then, seamless integrations of this technique into urban planning are receiving ever more spotlights. However, ecological control lines are hard to identify. Mishandling would lead to government-resident disputes. Worse still, property rights and historically unresolved problems further add to complexity of the issue. So, practicing the technique is quite challenging. Thus, proper ways to handle and renovate the built environment of urban communities within ecological control areas has become a focus in academic research. The paper applies the concept of transaction cost to the analysis of Shenzhen’s case. Gaming behaviors and policy responses during the renovation of communities within ecological control lines are studied closely. Several features of the communities within ecological control area are summarized, including fragmented spatial structure, complexed social structure, and simplified economic structure. Using the transaction cost theory, the paper’s analysis covers holistically costs and benefits for community renovation. This is followed by a detailed account of costs and benefits for different stakeholders. (i.e., government, developers, and residents). The paper highlights that excessive transaction costs and pessimistic income prospects contribute to difficulties of refining ecological control lines. Based on this reasoning, the paper recommends a reform strategy for urban transformation, environmental recuperation, and maximization of social and environmental welfare. It provides a valuable reference for other cities which implement similar policies.
Key words:  transaction cost  ecological control line  community renovation  public participation  urban sprawl