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基于“城市双修”的宜居社区评估方法与实践 ——以福州市为例
王璇
中国城市规划设计研究院
摘要:
在十九大新时代发展背景下,城市双修工作对宜居社区评估提出了更高的要求。本文首先对宜居社区评估的理论研究与问题进行了阐述;其次,基于评估中的四个难点提出了宜居社区评估的四项技术方法和优势;最后,以福州市为例,阐述了该评估方法的实际操作,并形成了具有双修可实施性的评估结论。
关键词:  共同缔造,双修,宜居社区,社区评估,民生,满意度调查
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Evaluation Method and Practice of Livable Community Based on city betterment and ecological restoration taking Fuzhou as an example
wangxuan
CHINA ACADEMY OF URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN
Abstract:
In April 2017, Fouzhou was listed as the second batch of city betterment and ecological restoration pilot cities nationwide. Under the background of new era, "people centered" has become the important content of adhering to and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, therefore, the city betterment and ecological restoration of Fouzhou is based on the state of "blessed" as the goal which Xi Jinping is proposed. on the basis of city betterment and ecological restoration, more attention should be payed to promoting happiness of the city, and the livable community construction should be brought into the work system. In view of the implementation characteristics of the city betterment and ecological restoration, we must first evaluate the livable community and find out the livable shortcoming of the community, so as to carry out targeted construction work. Therefore, it is necessary to study and develop a set of livable community assessment methods suitable for the characteristics of city betterment and ecological restoration work. At present, the domestic theoretical research on livable communities mainly focuses on the construction of index system, and the application of evaluation model is gradually in line with the international standards. Many evaluation systems are built with the comprehensive evaluation model of community development. In the current "residents participation, jointly created", the development trend of livable community planning has been on the agenda, but specific operation about livable community comprehensive evaluation in China and guidance on the implementation of research is still not sufficient. Meanwhile, the application of the evaluation index system mainly focus on community comparison and merit, and on problems, found that short plate screening application obviously inadequate. However, the city betterment and ecological restoration work is not a planning, but a specific construction project to make up for the shortcoming of the city. Therefore, it also puts forward higher requirements for the corresponding livable community evaluation: The first, looking for livable short board. As the community problem is all-encompassing, detailed data of the community must be collected through a variety of ways. Through scientific data analysis, the shortcoming of livable community construction must be identified to point out the direction for the city betterment and ecological restoration work. Second, determining the object of transformation. The number of communities is generally relatively large, and the communities or areas with prominent problems must be identified as the focus and object of city betterment and ecological restoration work, so as to provide a basis for the project library. Third, indicating the construction path. According to the characteristics and specific problems of the community, it provides a reference construction path for city betterment and ecological restoration work, such as classified governance, hierarchical promotion or itemized breakthrough, etc. It can be seen that the traditional livable community assessment is difficult to meet the specific requirements of city betterment and ecological restoration worlk, which needs further research and practice. According to the requirements of city betterment and ecological restoration work for livable community assessment, this paper puts forward four technical points. First, formulating unified standards to ensure the systematicness and standardization of evaluation contents; Secondly, a variety of evaluation methods should be combined to avoid the uniqueness of the evaluation subject. Third, the evaluation and the quantitative data statistics unifies, enhances the operability of evaluation conclusion; Fourth, combining GIS digital means to realize information spatialization and enhance the accuracy and scientificity of evaluation and analysis. Taking Fouzhou city as an example, this paper then expounds the practical operation process of the evaluation method. There are mainly four evaluation methods: the first method is the resident questionnaire, through which to solicit the residents' overall emotional evaluation of the city's livable degree; The second way is self-assessment of community neighborhood committee, which solicits the evaluation of community livability. The third way is collecting the basic information of community neighborhood committee; The fourth way is to visit key communities to understand the livable conditions of some representative communities. Through data analysis and comparison, a relatively comprehensive evaluation conclusion of livable community is formed, which provides a basis for city betterment and ecological restoration work. First of all, the evaluation conclusion identified 13 specific livable shortcomings of Fouzhou city from the complex community livable content, to achieve the goal of finding the shortcomings; Secondly, from the evaluation of 276 communities, the "uninhabitable" communities were identified. As the key object of city betterment and ecological restoration work, the communities governance project library was set up. Thirdly, the three types of old community, new community and mixed community are evaluated, which provide the ideas of classification construction and guidance for the city betterment and ecological restoration work. Finally, the evaluation first constructed the GIS-based Fouzhou community management database, and provides a platform for the subsequent community construction and management. In the practice of Fouzhou livable community evaluation, a set of evaluation methods with high practicability has been developed, and good results have been achieved in the actual operation process. This evaluation method is still the first time to explore, there are still many shortcomings. Taking community neighborhood committee as the object of investigation also has certain limitations and subjectivity, which still needs to be studied and improved.
Key words:  City Betterment and Ecological Restoration programs  Livable communities  Community assessment  the people's livelihood  Satisfaction survey