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格式塔心理学视角下的文人园林审美解读——以网师园为例
许砚梅, 官悦
中南大学
摘要:
文人园林的审美是古典园林研究的重要问题。在传统文化的熏陶下,我们强调对文人园林的诗性感悟和外形模仿,缺乏对园林审美本质的追问。本文运用格式塔心理学整体论和同型论的观点,从园林主题、造园手法和园林题咏方面分析文人园林网师园的审美特点,认为园的主题的确立与消隐是审美心物场逐渐转变的外在表现;造园手法是知觉组织原则的综合应用;园林题咏唤起了“心”与“物”的同型,从而营造了丰富的景观意象,促使着审美经验的完形。研究认为结合格式塔心理学原理,有助于理解文人园林意境的生成,但在分析个人和群体的审美知觉差异方面犹显不足。
关键词:  文人园林  审美  格式塔心理学  整体论  同型论
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The aesthetic interpretation of literati garden from the perspective of gestalt psychology——Taking The Master of Nets Garden as an example
Xu Yanmei, GuanYue
Central South University
Abstract:
The aesthetics of literati gardens is an important issue in the study of classical gardens. Under the influence of traditional Chinese culture, we praise the beauty of literati gardens and imitate the shape of classical gardens for landscape design, but seldom study the aesthetic nature of gardens.Taking The Master of Nets Garden as an example, this paper analyzes the theme of gardens, gardening techniques, and the art of naming the landscape from the viewpoints of Gestalt Psychological Holism and Homogeneity. The establishment and disappearance of the theme of the garden indicates the change of aesthetic psychophysical field. The principle of perceptual organization is applied in the gardening techniques.The art of naming the landscape give rise to the homotype of "mind" and "object", thus creating a rich landscape image and promoting the gestalt of aesthetic experience. It is believed that Gestalt Psychology is helpful to analyze the artistic conception of literati gardens, but there are great deficiencies in the analysis of aesthetic perception differences between individuals and groups.
Key words:  Literati garden  Aesthetic  Gestalt psychology  Holism  Isomorphism