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重庆主城区石墙景观植物组成特征及传播机制
李婷, 黄力, 钱深华, 杨永川
重庆大学城市建设与环境工程学院
摘要:
石墙是山地城市中的独特景观,其作为一类受干扰较弱的城市残存近自然生境,对维持城市生物多样性具有重要作用。本研究以重庆市主城区石墙景观上的植物为对象,调查研究其物种组成及特征,并揭示物种的传播机制和繁殖策略。结果显示,重庆主城区共有石墙植物221种,分属于80科175属;乔木优势种为黄葛树(Ficus virens),灌木优势种为密蒙花(Buddleja officinalis)和石岩枫(Mallotus repandus),草本优势种为蜈蚣草(Pteris vittata)、蒲儿根(Sinosenecio oldhamianus)、贯众(Cyrtomium fortunei)、黄鹌菜(Youngia japonica)和假粗毛鳞盖蕨(Microlepia pseudostrigosa)。石墙植物生活型组成以草本植物为主,共有158种,占物种总数的71.49%,其中多年生草本和一年生草本分别占42.53%和28.96%;其次为落叶乔木和常绿灌木;常绿乔木、落叶灌木、常绿和落叶木质藤本较少。石墙植物繁殖方式主要为种子繁殖和兼性繁殖,繁殖体传播方式主要为风力传播和鸟类传播,分别有119种和60种。石墙植物以乡土植物占优势,约占物种总数的81.0%。本研究结果可加深公众对石墙景观植被的正确认识,并为山地城市近自然垂直绿化和立体景观构建提质提供物种资源和配置参照。
关键词:  石墙  物种组成  传播机制  乡土种  垂直绿化
DOI:
分类号:Q948.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Species Composition and Dispersal Mechanisms of Vascular Plants on Masonry Wall in Urban Areas of Chongqing
LI Ting, Huang Li, QIAN Shenhua, YANG Yongchuan
Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering
Abstract:
Masonry wall is a urban remnant seminatural habitat, and is less disturbed by human activities in urban ecological systems. Masonry wall forms a unique landscape in the cities and plays an important role in maintaining urban biodiversity. This study focused on masonry wall plants in the urban areas of Chongqing, and investigated the species composition and characteristics, and explored their dispersal mechanisms and propagation strategies. We recorded 221 masonry species in 175 genera of 80 families. The dominant species was Ficus virens for trees, Buddleja officinalis and Mallotus repandus for shrubs, and Pteris vittata, Sinosenecio oldhamianus, Cyrtomium fortunei, Youngia japonica, Microlepia pseudostrigosa for herbs, respectively. When sorted by the life forms, herbage was dominant type of life form, and it included 158 species (71.49% of the total number of species; perennial herbs and annual herbs accounting for 42.53% and 28.96%, respectively). Deciduous trees, evergreen shrubs, evergreen trees, deciduous shrubs, evergreen and deciduous woody vines were rare. The main reproductive modes of masonry wall plants were seed reproduction and facultative vegetable reproduction. The propagule dispersal mode of masonry wall plants were mainly anemochory and bird dispersal (119 species for anemochory and 60 species for bird dispersal, respectively). Native plants were the major component of masonry wall plant community, accounting for about 81.0% of the total number of species. The results of this study can enhance public understanding of the masonry wall plants. It also provides suggestions on species screening and configuration for near-natural vertical afforestation and vertical landscape construction in mountainous cities.
Key words:  masonry wall  species composition  dispersal methods  native plants  vertical afforestation