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活动场地中环境因子多样化对儿童体力活动的影响
王馨甜1, 韩西丽2
1.澳大利亚新南威尔士大学城市建筑环境学院;2.北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院
摘要:
城市中儿童户外活动场地缺少对儿童需求的考虑,千篇一律且人工化痕迹过重限制了儿童的体力活动水平。已有研究论证了活动场地中自然环境因子对儿童体力活动的积极影响,但对自然与人工因子结合影响儿童体力活动的研究却仍匮乏。本研究选取了自然实验法、绘画法和访谈法,对比分析了64名5.5岁-6.5岁儿童在环境因子多样化与单一化的场地中的体力活动水平、社会交往和感知特征差异。研究结果显示:(1)活动场地中环境因子多样化在活动时间、强度、能量消耗和活动类型上促进了儿童的体力活动水平;(2)环境因子多样化对儿童体力活动的促进是系统性的,受社交行为与感知影响;(3)环境因子多样化能提高儿童的活动质量。研究结果可为城市儿童活动场地建设提供参考。
关键词:  儿童  活动场地  环境因子  体力活动  感知
DOI:
分类号:TU856
基金项目:
Impact of Diverse Environmental Factors on Children’s Physical Activity in Playgrounds
wang xin tian1, han xi li2
1.The Faculty of Built Environment, The University of New South Wales;2.School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University
Abstract:
Stereotyped and over-artificial playgrounds in the city, lacking consideration for children’s real needs, limit children’s outdoor physical activity levels. Many studies have shown that natural factors in children’s playgrounds have a positive impact on children"s physical activities, while few studies have paid attention to the impact of diverse environmental factors, made up of artificial and natural environmental factors, on children"s physical activity in children’s playgrounds. In this study, methods of natural experiment, painting and interviewing were selected to analyze and compare the physical activity level, social interaction and perception of 64 children around the age of five in the playgrounds composed of single and diverse environmental factors. The study finds out the following conclusions: (1) diverse environmental factors in playgrounds improve children’s physical activity level in time, intensity, energy consumption and types;(2) the impact of diverse environmental factors on children’s physical activity levels is systematic, influenced by children"s social interaction and perception as well;(3) diverse environmental factors improve the quality of children"s activities in playgrounds. This research can provide useful information to the city children’s playgrounds construction.
Key words:  children  playground, environmental factor, physical activity  perpecption