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BIM技术在建筑设计阶段的正向设计应用探索
曾旭东1, 周 鑫2, 张 磊3
1.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建 设与新技术教育部重点实验室,教授, zengxudong@126.com;2.重庆大学建筑城规学院,硕士研究生;3.基准方中建筑设计有限公司,工程师
摘要:
当前,BIM技术在建筑设计应用过 程中普遍存在“翻模”现象,这种“翻模”方 法没有在建筑设计阶段真正运用BIM技术, 未能体现BIM技术在设计阶段的价值,实现 BIM技术在建筑设计阶段的正向设计应用已 迫在眉睫。根据建筑设计数字化所具有的特 性,在BIM技术本身所具有的核心功能下,以 不同工程实例在建筑设计各个阶段中BIM技 术的应用过程为基础,探索BIM技术在建筑 设计阶段正向设计中的特点与发展方向,分 别提出BIM技术在建筑方案设计、初步设计 和施工图设计过程中的工作要点。
关键词:  BIM技术  正向设计  建筑设计
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190616
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(51778074); 重庆市研究生教育教学改革研究项目 (yjg183012);重庆大学教学改革研究项目 (2017Y56);重庆大学研究生教育教学改 革研究项目(cquyjg18207)
Explorations on the Forward Design Application of BIM Technology in Architectural Design Stage
ZENG Xudong,ZHOU Xin,ZHANG Lei
Abstract:
The continued digitization of industry offers the opportunity for future architectural developments to reinvent contemporary architectural design and disclosure practices. BIM technology, as the cutting-edge technology in the informatization development of construction industry, has been explicitly included in a series of national major strategies and development plans, such as the Outline of the National Strategy on Innovation-driven Development, the Outline of the National IT Development Strategy, the National Science and Technology Innovation of the 13th Five-year Plan, and the Outline of Construction Industry Informatization Development among 2016-2020. BIM Technology is widely used in developed countries and has acquired good economic benefi ts, but in the process of rapid growth of building industry informatization in China, BIM technology gradually become a tool for “molding after design”. “Molding after design” is to draw a BIM model according to the two-dimensional drawings after the completion of design to meet the requirements of the government or meet the application requirements of BIM model in subsequent stages. But this way does not really use BIM model to play a role in simulation analysis, effi ciency improvement, collaboration, and building quality inspection in the process of architectural design. This phenomenon of “molding after design” has seriously hindered the development of information technology in China's building industry, so it is urgent to study the application of forward design method of BIM technology in the architectural design stage. There are a series of reasons accounting for the phenomenon of “molding after design”, suspended at the top of the list is the following three reasons. First of all, although BIM technology has great economic benefi ts in terms of the whole life cycle of the building, compared with the traditional two-dimensional design, the three-dimensional design of BIM in the architectural scheme design phase increases the workload. Secondly, the deliverables have not been changed from two-dimensional drawings to three-dimensional models, but the two-dimensional drawings generated by BIM model in the construction drawing stage can not fully meet the requirements of two-dimensional drawing specifi cations. Thirdly, the software in BIM Technology system is complex, and the gradual information integration mechanism of real-time linkage, information update and multi-majors team cooperation in the design process is not mature. Different from “molding after design”, the forward design of BIM technology runs through the whole process of architectural design, emphasizing the high integration of architectural information model and architectural design process. The three-dimensional information model formed by BIM technology starts with the design idea and goes all the way to the construction drawings, which conforms to the law of building information integration from coarse to fi ne design and from simple to complex information. The model information is gradually improved by the cooperation of different specialties in this process. It relies on the continuous integration of model information that designers can carry out building performance simulation optimization in all stages, promote the improvement of design quality, and finally present scientific and reasonable design results. Therefore, the forward application of BIM Technology in the stage of architectural design is an important technical support for the improvement of production efficiency and industrial chain in the construction industry, and its technological innovation and application are “wind indicator” for the improvement of the informatization level in the construction industry. Based on the forward application of BIM technology in practical engineering cases, this paper analyzes the characteristics of the forward design application of BIM technology. Then it puts forward the application scope and key points of BIM technology in the early site analysis and scheme design, the mid-term scheme deepening design and the later construction drawing in the architectural design stage, and then finds the value of BIM technology forward design so that BIM technology can be used in the architectural design. In the design, it can provide scientific design basis, coordinate with design and improve drawing efficiency. Its value is to make BIM technology play a role in providing scientific design basis, coordinating design and improving drawing efficiency in architectural design.
Key words:  BIM Technology  Forward Design  Architectural Design