环境微生物学（microbiolog y of the built
|关键词: 建筑环境微生物学 建筑设计决策 微生物群落 健康建筑 城市形态
|Review of Microbiology of the Built Environment
CHEN Qiuyu,YANG Siyan,LIU Xiaohu,LIU Yi,LIU Hui
|Constructing a living environment conducive to human’s healthy life has rapidly
become a hot social concern. In order to understand how the environment affects human health,
it is necessary to consider buildings as an ecosystem-architectural design in the process of
building a complex ecological system. Although ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing of culture
isolation has been common in the 1990s, it was not until 2004 that the first indoor microbial
sampling analysis based on gene sequencing was completed. How are microbes distributed in
the built environment? How do architecture compositions affect natural microbes? Given the
microbial community in the existing environment, how can we further optimize our architectural
design? These considerations have catalyzed new developments in microbiology of the built
environment, which includes microbiology, ecology, environmental science, building science, big
data, and artifi cial intelligence. Its purpose is to study the diversity and richness of the microbial
community in the architectural space we live in, so as to improve the quality of the microbial
community through design and make it more conducive to human health.
Microbiology of the built environment is to focus on the diversity of microbial communities
in the built environment, including lots of interdisciplinary studies. The fi ndings are still at the
basic stage, lacking the correlation between microbial diversity and architectural environmental
indicators, causing a high degree of overlap between architectural research results and biological
ones. Scholars recently began to describe the characteristics of sampling points with quantitative
methods, and tried to fi gure out the architectural indicators related to microbial diversity in the
environment by controlling variables. Although the obtained conclusions are relatively regular
and not systematic, it is undeniable that these directions and preliminary results have laid a
foundation for further research.
In the future, architects may probably directly use the built environment microbial index
to make design decisions and create a certain type of space that can promote or inhibit the
growth of microbial community, thus obviously affecting the physical and mental health of
users. The research achievements of relationship between architectural design and the diversity
of air microbial community have provided us with a new perspective to understand healthy
architecture. Studies have shown that the way the built environment shapes microbes does have
a direct impact on human health. For example, people who live in damp or poorly ventilated
environments for long periods of time have a sharply increased risk of certain diseases. Sick building syndrome has been found in the 1980s. In addition, our view of microorganisms has shifted from purely negative (pathogenicity) to
potentially positive (protectiveness). Human health is influenced by the overall community structure and composition of microorganisms, rather than
the simple correlation between a certain microorganism and a certain disease.
It will also be one of the research trends in the future to build a stable microbial community structure in the building environment. Healthy
living environment should not only include physical environment satisfying human thermal comfort, but also good air quality inside and outside the
building-namely stable air microbial community structure. One of the important research directions in microbiology of the built environment next is
to take urban microclimate as the medium of urban morphology and air microorganism, so as to further explore the correlation mechanism between
them. The designers are able to control environmental microorganisms from the level of urban design in this way, and then achieve a healthy city in
the true sense. That means taking human health as the center in all aspects from urban planning, construction to management.
This paper summarizes the latest research progress of domestic and foreign scholars in this field in recent years using literature review method
and comparative induction. It points out the future development direction of building environment microbiology: 1) Attaining the explorations of
the influencing mechanism of microbial environment's influence on urban and architectural environment and the environmental control methods to
reduce risk exposure; 2) Studies on the characteristics and classification system of microbial ecological environment in healthy human settlements at
different scales; 3) Risk control of indoor space environment under the risk of exposure to specific microbial flora.
|Key words: Microbiology of the Built Environment Microbiome Architectural Design Healthy Building Urban Form.