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建筑环境视野下微生物研究现状浅析
陈秋瑜1, 杨思燕2, 刘小虎3, 刘 毅4, 刘 晖5
1.华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学院,讲师;2.华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学院,硕士研 究生;3.华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学院,教授, 25287069@qq.com;4.华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学院,硕士 研究生;5.(通讯作者):华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学 院,副教授
摘要:
构建一个有利于人体健康的建成 环境已经成为当前社会关注的热点。建筑 环境微生物学(microbiolog y of the built environment)就是通过研究建筑环境中的 微生物群落多样性,通过设计改善微生物 群落质量,使其更有利于人体健康。运用文 献综述法和比较分析归纳法,对近年来国 内外学者在此领域的最新研究情况进行综 述,指出建筑环境对微生物组成与分布的 影响路径和建筑环境微生物学未来发展的 三个方向:一、探索环境微生物对建筑与城 市环境健康的影响机制;二、研究建筑和城 市居住环境中微生物群落分布的时空特征, 建立环境微生物维度的建筑分类体系;三、 提供使用者在建筑室内环境中的健康“路线 图”,从而通过调控室内环境的设计要素, 降低和控制使用者的健康风险。得出以下 结论:当前研究存在深度不够、侧重于环境 数据分析和多学科综合研究薄弱等问题,最终未来的研究将呈现出从定性分析向定量模拟方 向发展的趋势。
关键词:  建筑环境微生物学  建筑设计决策  微生物群落  健康建筑  城市形态
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190611
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年项目(51708232); 国家自然科学基金资助项目(51978295)
Review of Microbiology of the Built Environment
CHEN Qiuyu,YANG Siyan,LIU Xiaohu,LIU Yi,LIU Hui
Abstract:
Constructing a living environment conducive to human’s healthy life has rapidly become a hot social concern. In order to understand how the environment affects human health, it is necessary to consider buildings as an ecosystem-architectural design in the process of building a complex ecological system. Although ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing of culture isolation has been common in the 1990s, it was not until 2004 that the first indoor microbial sampling analysis based on gene sequencing was completed. How are microbes distributed in the built environment? How do architecture compositions affect natural microbes? Given the microbial community in the existing environment, how can we further optimize our architectural design? These considerations have catalyzed new developments in microbiology of the built environment, which includes microbiology, ecology, environmental science, building science, big data, and artifi cial intelligence. Its purpose is to study the diversity and richness of the microbial community in the architectural space we live in, so as to improve the quality of the microbial community through design and make it more conducive to human health. Microbiology of the built environment is to focus on the diversity of microbial communities in the built environment, including lots of interdisciplinary studies. The fi ndings are still at the basic stage, lacking the correlation between microbial diversity and architectural environmental indicators, causing a high degree of overlap between architectural research results and biological ones. Scholars recently began to describe the characteristics of sampling points with quantitative methods, and tried to fi gure out the architectural indicators related to microbial diversity in the environment by controlling variables. Although the obtained conclusions are relatively regular and not systematic, it is undeniable that these directions and preliminary results have laid a foundation for further research. In the future, architects may probably directly use the built environment microbial index to make design decisions and create a certain type of space that can promote or inhibit the growth of microbial community, thus obviously affecting the physical and mental health of users. The research achievements of relationship between architectural design and the diversity of air microbial community have provided us with a new perspective to understand healthy architecture. Studies have shown that the way the built environment shapes microbes does have a direct impact on human health. For example, people who live in damp or poorly ventilated environments for long periods of time have a sharply increased risk of certain diseases. Sick building syndrome has been found in the 1980s. In addition, our view of microorganisms has shifted from purely negative (pathogenicity) to potentially positive (protectiveness). Human health is influenced by the overall community structure and composition of microorganisms, rather than the simple correlation between a certain microorganism and a certain disease. It will also be one of the research trends in the future to build a stable microbial community structure in the building environment. Healthy living environment should not only include physical environment satisfying human thermal comfort, but also good air quality inside and outside the building-namely stable air microbial community structure. One of the important research directions in microbiology of the built environment next is to take urban microclimate as the medium of urban morphology and air microorganism, so as to further explore the correlation mechanism between them. The designers are able to control environmental microorganisms from the level of urban design in this way, and then achieve a healthy city in the true sense. That means taking human health as the center in all aspects from urban planning, construction to management. This paper summarizes the latest research progress of domestic and foreign scholars in this field in recent years using literature review method and comparative induction. It points out the future development direction of building environment microbiology: 1) Attaining the explorations of the influencing mechanism of microbial environment's influence on urban and architectural environment and the environmental control methods to reduce risk exposure; 2) Studies on the characteristics and classification system of microbial ecological environment in healthy human settlements at different scales; 3) Risk control of indoor space environment under the risk of exposure to specific microbial flora.
Key words:  Microbiology of the Built Environment  Microbiome  Architectural Design  Healthy Building  Urban Form.