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以提升生态功能为导向的城市绿道系统规划方法研究 ——以成都天府绿道为例
张 健
西华大学土木建筑与环境学院,讲师, 717006315@qq.com
摘要:
对绿道规划方法的研究已成为景 观生态学、城乡规划学以及风景园林学等多 个学科的研究热点。在现有对绿道规划研 究过程及成果中,重点聚焦于对绿道的历史 及发展、旅游及休憩功能以及绿道使用者行 为与需求的分析,对于绿道对城市生态功能 的影响关注较少。当前,在快速的城市化进程 中,过度的开发建设活动使得城市的生态本 底不断破碎化,进而导致城市的生态功能退 化严重;城市绿道是重塑城市生态本底,提升 城市生态功能的有效途径。本文以成都市为 例,运用景观格局指数、空间自相关分析的技 术方法,以城市发展导向变更的时间段为节 点,分别从2000年、2008年以及2016年对成 都市的生态本底进行定量分析。提出以提升 生态功能为导向的绿道规划方法,探索构建 同步提升城市美观与生态服务功能的规划路 径,其研究结论对于综合型、多目标、市域尺 度的绿道系统规划具有一定的指导意义。
关键词:  城市绿道  生态功能  景观格局指 数  成都天府绿道
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190610
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目:基 于复杂系统理论的城市河流廊道对城市景 观格局的影响机制研究——以成都平原城 市为例(51608449)
Research on Improved Urban Greenway Planning and Design Method Based on Improvement ofEcological Background Function: Taking the Tianfu Greenway as an Example
ZHANG Jianlin
Abstract:
Research on the greenway planning has become a hotspot in landscape ecology, urban and rural planning, landscape architecture and other disciplines. The existing theories and methods of greenway planning focus on the history and development of the greenway, its function of tourism and recreation and greenway users’ behavior and demand, but pay less attention to the impact of greenway on urban ecological function. At present, in the process of rapid urbanization, the ecological background of the city is constantly broken, leading to the serious degradation of the ecological function of the city. The construction of greenway is an effective way to reshape the ecological background of the city and improve the ecological function of the city. Taking Chengdu City as an example, adopting landscape pattern index and spatial autocorrelation analysis technology methods, taking the period of time that the city’s development orientation changed as the node, based on the quantitative analysis of the ecological background of Chengdu city in 2000, 2008 and 2016, this paper comes to the conclusion that Chengdu city’s ecological background of river and greenway is relatively good and it is most efficient to use linear connection to connect the background of urban ecological functions. Moreover, this paper summarizes the greenway planning method based on improving ecological function from three aspects of greenway backbone line, greenway node and greenway connection line, and further improves the principle of setting its auxiliary function. Greenway backbone line emphasizes a perspective of ecosystem pattern, considering the construction target of Chengdu city, aiming at river pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity and natural habitat reduction and other adverse factors, setting up a backbone network of the greenway system based on ecological dominance and ecological optimization, to maintain and protect the existing near-natural physical environment and biological resources in the urban environment, establishing connections of linear corridors that need to be protected or rebuilt, and to maintain the continuity, integrity and effectiveness of the main habitat chains and networks. Greenway node focuses on the perspective of ecological node protection, selecting wetlands with good ecological functions in the urban area (such as Qinglong Lake, Jiangan Lake, Anjing Lake and other important wetlands where water bodies meet), to get priority development to the patches suitable for ecological resource protection and good habitat as the important nodes of greenway system. Based on the framework of green way system building on water networks, greenway connection line connects important natural and human nodes in line with the characteristics of ecological resources and the framework pattern of water network in different areas, based on highways within the city, national highways, express lane and slow lane to build biological corridors with connectivity. It effectively connects scenic sports and historic sites, natural reserves, forest parks and wetland parks within the city, as well as connects representative cultural relics, traditional blocks of historical villages and other historical and cultural elements to improve the greenway system within the city. The auxiliary setting of greenway can be decomposed into five aspects of design principle: constructing a general framework that fits in with unique natural and humanistic resources within the area, carrying out a greenway network system with objective and functional diversity, building a scenic byway system that complements the greenway, and exploring new ways of land using and interactive development of urban and rural areas. Based on the analysis of urban ecological background and by using quantitative and qualitative planning method, this study explores and builds a planning path to simultaneously improve the city’s beauty and ecological service function. It has certain reference significance for the comprehensive, multi-objective and city-scale greenway system planning.
Key words:  Urban Greenway  Ecological Function  Landscape Pattern Index  Chengdu Tianfu Greenway