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云南民族聚落的人居环境及空间转型重构探讨
程海帆
昆明理工大学建筑与城市规划院,讲师, 422311677@qq.com
摘要:
应用GIS空间分析,构建云南乡村 聚落斑块的空间数据量化模型,梳理乡村聚 落的人居环境,分析乡村聚落的空间特征 及影响因素;面对快速发展变化,对民族聚 落的空间转型重构的矛盾与冲突成因进行剖 析;面对整体性认识不足的问题,进一步探 讨传统民族聚落空间重构的系统方法。分析 认为,快速发展的民族聚落应从发展模式转 型,挖掘生态环境和文化地理等传统人居智 慧方面,重构民族聚落空间等方面探讨整体 系统性重构民族聚落空间的路线方法。
关键词:  云南民族地区  乡村聚落空间  空 间转型  适应性重构  传统人居环境
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190608
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目:当 代民族地区传统乡村聚落空间适应性重构 研究(51608240);云南“直过民族走廊” 传统聚落变迁研究(51808271)
Discussions on Human Settlements Environment, Spatial Transformation and Reconstruction of YunnanNationality Settlements
CHENG Haifan
Abstract:
Yunnan is a typical region where ethnic minorities live in a geographically diverse and culturally diverse environment, with the most diverse ethnic groups in Southwest China. This study takes Yunnan as the research object to explore the settlement environment and spatial pattern of rural settlements in ethnic areas. This research integrates the application of Geographic Information Systems to explore the living environment of ethnic settlements and the causes of evolution. Due to the lack of textual historical data and integral system view, exploring the framework for the reconstruction of human settlement environment through ethnic settlement space, it’s expected that studies can provide theoretical and technical possibilities for the protection and development of traditional rural settlements in ethnic areas. Through the specific application of GIS spatial analysis, studies construct a quantitative model of spatial data for rural settlements in Yunnan, sort out the settlement environment of rural settlements, and analyze the spatial characteristics and influencing factors of rural settlements. Facing rapid development and changes, this paper analyzes the contradictions and conflicts in the spatial transformation of ethnic settlements. Facing the problem of lack of holistic understanding, further it puts forward the research framework of the reconstruction of ethnic settlements. The analysis shows that the rapidly developing ethnic settlements should tap traditional human settlement wisdom such as ecological environment and cultural geography, face the core issues of the protection and development of ethnic settlements, deepen systematic and comprehensive research, and explore the framework of the environmental suitability and the overall systematic spatial restructuring and the method of generation. This study sorts out the trends of the study of rural settlements in ethnic areas, quantitatively analyzes them from the spatial level, and uses the 2018 satellite maps as the base map to describe and identify the rural settlement space in Yunnan. Then it integrates with the geospatial units to carry out related settlement environments analysis of human-land relationship, physical geography, cultural geography, vertical zone, and spatial distribution. The contents of combing are with these: the spatial distribution, scale, farming radius of the settlement, the production mode of the settlement, the ecological environment, the historical evolution of the settlement, cultural heritage, the altitude of the settlement, the mode of livelihood, and the uneven distribution of the settlement in ethnic areas. The current social and economic, production and lifestyle, and tourism development have led to the transformation of settlement space. To a sustainable development transition model,the development of settlement space should continue the wisdom of traditional settlements and the cultural heritage of traditional settlements. This research starts with the method of constructing a rural settlement spatial system database and quantitatively analyzes the rural settlement environment pattern in Yunnan. The spatial system database is also extensible. This study explores the feasibility of reconstructing the traditional settlement environment of ethnic settlements, returns regional studies, historical studies and other back to the spatial level, establishes spatial clues, analyzes the historical evolution of ethnic settlements, and provides possible methods for the reconstruction of traditional settlement spaces. This study faces multipoint ethnic settlements, although basic-level and system-integrity-level studies are involved, the study of typical living environment and its space-time needs to be further refined.
Key words:  Yunnan Minority Area  Traditional Rural Settlement Space  Space Transformation  Adaptive Reconstruction  Traditional Human Settlement